植物生态学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 187-196.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00019

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

青藏高原东缘野生暗紫贝母生物量分配格局对高山生态环境的适应

徐波1,2, 王金牛1,2, 石福孙1, 高景3, 吴宁1*   

  1. 1中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041;
    2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3河南师范大学生命科学学院, 河南新乡 435007
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-05 修回日期:2013-01-21 出版日期:2013-03-01 发布日期:2014-02-12
  • 通讯作者: 吴宁 E-mail:wuning@cib.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金;国家科技支撑计划资助项目;国家科技支撑计划资助项目

Adaptation of biomass allocation patterns of wild Fritillaria unibracteata to alpine environment in the eastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

XU Bo1,2, WANG Jin-Niu1,2, SHI Fu-Sun1, GAO Jing3, and WU Ning1*   

  1. 1Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China;

    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;

    3College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 435007, China
  • Received:2013-01-05 Revised:2013-01-21 Online:2013-03-01 Published:2014-02-12
  • Contact: WU Ning E-mail:wuning@cib.ac.cn

摘要:

从时空尺度研究了青藏高原东缘野生暗紫贝母(Fritillaria unibracteata)生物量分配特征对高山环境条件的生态适应。通过海拔梯度、群落类型、群落盖度、群落透光率4个变量的分析, 间接探讨了高山环境条件下水分、热量、光照和土壤养分等主要环境因子对暗紫贝母生物量分配的影响, 并主要研究了海拔梯度这一综合要素的生态效应。同时, 从时间尺度上研究了暗紫贝母不同生活史阶段的生物量分配模式, 以期了解不同发育阶段高山植物对于环境要素的适应特征。研究结果表明: 1)在一定的空间范围内, 4个环境变量中仅海拔梯度对暗紫贝母单株鳞茎生物量及总生物量的影响差异显著, 且生物量积累随海拔升高而减小。2)在空间尺度上, 海拔梯度为野生暗紫贝母生长的主要限制因子, 表明在高山地区热量条件对植物生长具有明显的制约作用, 同时不同生活史阶段的暗紫贝母其生物量分配模式对海拔梯度的响应也存在着一定的差异。2年生贝母的鳞茎生物量分配随海拔升高而降低, 叶生物量分配随之增加。3年生和4年生贝母鳞茎及叶生物量分配在不同海拔梯度上比较稳定, 而茎生物量分配随海拔升高而降低, 有性生殖(花)分配则随之而增加。各生活史阶段植株根生物量在不同海拔梯度上分配稳定。3)在时间尺度上, 不同生活史阶段贝母生物量分配模式存在显著差异。根和茎生物量分配随生活史阶段的增加而显著增加, 而鳞茎和叶生物量分配则随之显著减少。单株鳞茎生物量在3年生阶段达到最大。

Abstract:
Aims Under different selection stresses, alpine plants tend to adjust their biomass investments to different functions and/or organs, and this biomass allocation strategy presents different patterns during different life history stages of plants. Our objective is to address three hypotheses regarding Fritillaria unibracteata: 1) elevation gradients impact individual bulb biomass and individual total biomass; 2) biomass allocation adapts to the elevational change of environmental factors; and 3) biomass allocation at different life history stages show different patterns.
Methods We collected wild F. unibracteata at different elevations in the alpine belt of Songpan County in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The samples were cleaned and divided into different organs, the biomasses of which were then weighed after being dried in the oven.
Important finding Elevation significantly affected individual bulb biomass (IBB) and individual total biomass (ITB), both of which decreased gradually with increased elevation. Elevation representing the heat factor was the pivotal factor limiting the growth of alpine plants such as F. unibracteata. For plants with different life history
stages, their biomass allocation presented diverse patterns. First, the bulb biomass allocation (BBA) of 2-year-old F. unibracteata significantly decreased with increased elevation, but its leaf biomass allocation (LBA) increased. Second, both BBA and LBA of 3- and 4-year-old F. unibracteata were relatively stable at different elevations, but their stem biomass allocation (SBA) significantly decreased with increased elevation. In contrast, the sexual reproductive (flower) allocation (SRA) significantly increased with increased elevation. Third, at different life history stages, the root biomass allocation (RBA) of F. unibracteata was relatively stable at different elevations. Both RBA and SBA showed an increasing trend with the growth of plants, but BBA and LBA showed a decreasing trend. Three- year-old individuals normally had the maximum IBB.