Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 20-27.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0133

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Experimental warming changed plants’ phenological sequences of two dominant species in an alpine meadow, western of Sichuan

ZHANG Li1,2,WANG Gen-Xu1,RAN Fei1,PENG A-Hui1,2,XIAO Yao1,2,YANG Yang1,YANG Yan1,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China

    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2018-01-18 Published:2018-01-20
  • Contact: Yan YANG E-mail:yyang@imde.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences(QYZDJ-SSW-DQC006);the National Key Research and Development Project of China(2017YFC0504900);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31100323);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31300416)

Abstract:

Aims We studied phenological sequences of two dominant plants (Polygonum viviparum and Potentilla leuconota) in an alpine meadow of the Hengduan Mt., western of Sichuan to explore the alpine plants responses on climate change.

Methods Open-top chambers (OTCs) chosen by ITEX were used to monitor the warming in the field. After a four-year experimental warming, in the 5th growing season we recorded the phenological sequences of two dominant species, focusing on plant responses on warming. The sequence was divided into four stages: budding, flowering, withering and ripe seeds. Each stage had three events: first, peak, and last.

Important findings Our results showed that: 1) For P. viviparum, experimental warming elicited a shortening of the duration of each stage, advanced all of the phenological events but the first of withering and ripe seeds, shortened the period of each stage and reduced the duration of entire reproduction. 2) For P. leuconota, experimental warming extended the duration of every stage. All phenological events before the end of withering occurred earlier on experimental warming but the peak of flowering. The period of each stage had inconsistent responses on warming and warming prolonged the duration of entire reproduction. The present results indicated that not all phenological events were equally responsive to experimental warming and an entire sequence could be a more accurate way to evaluate the responses on environmental variation. Therefore, the plastic responses to warming of different species would have effects on community composition and structure.

Key words: alpine meadow, climate change, open-top chamber, Polygonum viviparum, Potentilla leuconota, reproductive phenology

Fig. 1

Monthly mean air temperature, soil temperature, and soil water content inside and outside the open-top chambers during the growing season. A, Monthly mean air temperature. B, Monthly mean soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth. C, Monthly mean soil temperature at 20 cm soil depth. D, Monthly mean soil water content at 5 cm soil depth. E, Monthly mean soil water content at 20 cm soil depth."

Fig. 2

Phenological shifts at the sequence of Polygonum viviparum (A) and Potentilla leuconota (B). ■, ▲ and ● symbol represent a phenological shift of first, peak, and last of the four stages, respectively. Negative value represents earlier stations than control in days, and the positive value represents delayed stations than control in days. OTCs, open-top chambers."

Table 1

Parameter estimates of GLME models investigating phenological sequences responses to experimental warming"

阶段
Stage
状态
Station
银叶委陵菜
Potentilla leuconota
珠芽拳参
Polygonum viviparum
N 截距
Intercept
OTCs N 截距
Intercept
OTCs
花芽期
Budding
开始 First 6 5.11*** -0.03 13 5.19*** 0.01
峰值 Peak 6 5.17 *** -0.05 13 5.19*** 0.01
结束 Last 6 5.23*** -0.01 13 5.28*** 0.02
开花期
Flowering
开始 First 8 5.17*** -0.06 10 5.28*** -0.02
峰值 Peak 8 5.18*** 0.02 10 5.30*** -0.01
结束 Last 8 5.27*** -0.02 10 5.33*** -0.02
凋谢期
Withering
开始 First 8 5.18*** -0.05 13 5.25*** 0.02
峰值 Peak 8 5.27 *** -0.03 13 5.30*** 0.01
结束 Last 8 5.36 *** 0.04 13 5.33*** 0.01
种子成熟期
Ripe seeds
开始 First 8 5.23*** 0.02 12 5.36*** -0.02
峰值 Peak 8 5.37 *** 0.02 12 5.38*** -0.02
结束 Last 8 5.47*** 0.01 12 5.41*** -0.03

Fig. 3

Effects of open-top chambers (OTCs) warming on the duration of each stage of Polygonum viviparum (A) and Potentilla leuconota (B)(mean ± SE)."

Fig. 4

Effects of open-top chambers (OTCs) warming on the period between the peak time of the neighboring stages of Polygonum viviparum (A) and Potentilla leuconota (B) (mean ± SE)."

Appendix I

Changes in coverage and height of the two species under experimental warming (mean ± SE). *, p < 0.05"

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