Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 174-184.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0245

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Effects of different forms and levels of N additions on soil potential net N mineralization rate in meadow steppe, Nei Mongol, China

LI Yang1,2,XU Xiao-Hui1,2,SUN Wei3,SHEN Yan1,4,REN Ting-Ting1,2,HUANG Jian-Hui1,2,WANG Chang-Hui1,*()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3 Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    4 College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China
  • Received:2018-10-05 Accepted:2019-01-31 Online:2019-06-04 Published:2019-02-20
  • Contact: WANG Chang-Hui E-mail:wangch@ibcas.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFC0500703);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31572452);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41573063)

Abstract: <i>Aims</i>

The increase of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition caused by global change and industrial and agricultural production has had an important impact on the structure and function of ecosystems. There are many forms in composition of atmospheric N deposition. However, it is not clear whether there are differences in the effects of N deposition forms on structure and function of the ecosystems. Here our objective was to characterize the effects of different forms and levels of N addition on soil net N mineralization potential of steppe ecosystem in the Nei Mongol.

<i>Methods</i>

A N addition experiment was carried out in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol using five different N fertilizers, including CO(NH2)2, NH4HCO3, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and slow-release urea separately since 2014. There were six N addition levels with 0 (N0), 2 (N2), 5 (N5), 10 (N10), 20 (N20) and 50 (N50) g·m -2·a -1. Fresh soil samples from all treatments were taken and all roots were removed in July 2016. Then these soil samples were incubated for 24 h at 25 °C with 60% field water capacity. The potential of net N mineralization and nitrification rates and the potential of soil microbial respiration (MR), soil physical and chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN) contents were measured, respectively.

<i>Important findings</i>

The results showed that: (1) different forms and levels of N addition significantly increased soil inorganic N content and potential net N mineralization and nitrification rates. The N20 treatment had the highest soil inorganic N content and net N mineralization rate, however the highest soil net nitrification rate was found under N50 treatment; (2) different forms and levels of N addition significantly increased MBC and MBN contents and decreased the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2). Lower N addition (N2) enhanced MR, but medium and higher N addition (N20, N50) restrained the MR; (3) different forms and levels of N addition significantly reduced the soil pH value, but significantly increased the available phosphorus content. No effects were found in soil water content, total phosphorus, total N and soil organic carbon contents, separately. The results verified that soil available N was the limited factor affecting plant productivity in meadow steppe in Nei Mongol steppe. No matter what type of N fertilizer can increase the activity of soil microorganism and the potential net N mineralization rate of the meadow steppe in this area.

Key words: nitrogen addition, potential net nitrogen mineralization, soil microbial activity, meadow steppe

Fig. 1

Effects of nitrogen (N) addition forms and levels on soil physicochemical properties in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol (mean ± SD, n = 3). Comparison was performed with different N forms within the same N level. Different lowercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)."

Table 1

Results (p-values) of two-way ANOVA on the effects of addition nitrogen forms, nitrogen levels and their interactions on soil physicochemical properties in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol"

pH 速效磷含量
Available P content
全磷含量
Total P content
全氮含量
Total N content
有机碳含量
Organic carbon content
d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p
氮形态 N form (F) 4 14.87 <0.001 4 1.93 0.12 4 1.43 0.24 4 0.28 0.89 4 0.72 0.59
氮水平 N level (L) 5 32.21 <0.001 5 14.82 <0.001 5 1.40 0.24 5 3.59 0.007 5 4.23 0.002
F × L 20 2.84 0.001 20 5.13 <0.001 20 0.94 0.54 20 0.80 0.71 20 3.35 <0.001

Fig. 2

Effects of nitrogen (N) addition forms and levels on soil microbial carbon (MBC) content (A), microbial nitrogen (MBN) content (B) and their ratio (MBC:MBN)(C)(means ± SD, n = 3). AU, CO(NH2)2; AS, (NH4)2SO4; AN, NH4NO3; AC, NH4HCO3; AR, slow-release urea. Comparison was performed with different N forms within the same N level. Different lowercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)."

Table 2

Results (p-values) of two-way ANOVA on the effects of addition nitrogen forms, nitrogen levels and their interactions on soil microbial activity in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol"

MBC MBN MBC:MBN MR qCO2
d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p
氮形态 N form (F) 4 34.24 <0.001 4 0.85 0.50 4 16.09 <0.001 4 1.33 0.27 4 4.27 0.004
氮水平 N level (L) 5 52.82 <0.001 5 14.50 <0.001 5 34.98 <0.001 5 8.68 <0.001 5 7.43 <0.001
F × L 20 20.17 <0.001 20 3.95 <0.001 20 8.24 <0.001 20 1.54 0.10 20 3.15 <0.001

Fig. 3

Effects of nitrogen (N) addition forms and levels on soil microbial respiration in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol during 24 hours incubation (means ± SD, n = 3). AU, CO(NH2)2; AS, (NH4)2SO4; AN, NH4NO3; AC, NH4HCO3; AR, slow-release urea. Comparison was performed with different N forms within the same N level. Different lowercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)."

Table 4

Effects of nitrogen (N) addition forms and levels on soil microbial metabolic quotient in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol (mean ± SD, n = 3)"

氮添加水平
N addition level (g·m-2)
AU AS AN AC AR
0 1.58 ± 0.40b 2.70 ± 0.33ab 7.43 ± 4.31a 1.72 ± 0.37b 3.80 ± 3.48ab
2 1.21 ± 2.11b 1.79 ± 0.08c 3.72 ± 1.06ab 1.28 ± 0.43c 4.87 ± 0.87a
5 1.69 ± 0.30a 2.93 ± 2.60a 2.14 ± 1.01a 2.65 ± 2.26a 3.29 ± 1.24a
10 1.26 ± 0.74ab 0.58 ± 0.15b 0.62 ± 0.47b 1.71 ± 0.42ab 3.53 ± 2.87a
20 2.98 ± 0.51a 0.26 ± 0.04c 0.09 ± 0.03c 0.94 ± 0.87b 0.18 ± 0.15c
50 0.16 ± 0.14b 0.06 ± 0.04b 0.13 ± 0.01b 1.31 ± 0.57ab 4.28 ± 3.91a

Fig. 4

Effects of nitrogen (N) addition forms and levels on soil nitrate (A), ammonium (B) and total inorganic N (C) pools in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol (mean ± SD, n = 3). AU, CO(NH2)2; AS, (NH4)2SO4; AN, NH4NO3; AC, NH4HCO3; AR, slow-release urea. Aamm, accumulation of ammonium nitrogen; Anit, accumulation of nitrate nitrogen; Amin, accumulation of nitrogen mineralization. Comparison was performed with different N forms within the same N level. Different lowercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)."

Table 3

Results (p-values) of two-way ANOVA on the effects of addition nitrogen forms, nitrogen levels and their interactions on soil nitrogen mineralization in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol"


Aamm Anit Amin Rmin Rnit
d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p d.f. F p
氮形态 N form (F) 4 4.49 0.003 4 4.08 0.005 4 4.00 0.006 4 4.00 0.006 4 4.08 0.005
氮水平 N level (L) 5 77.23 <0.001 5 16.13 <0.001 5 64.80 <0.001 5 64.80 <0.001 5 16.13 <0.001
F × L 20 7.10 <0.001 20 2.46 0.004 20 6.89 <0.001 20 6.89 <0.001 20 2.46 0.004

Fig. 5

Effects of nitrogen (N) addition on soil potential net N mineralization (Rmin)(A) and nitrification (Rnit)(B) rates in the meadow steppe in Nei Mongol (mean ± SD, n = 3). AU, CO(NH2)2; AS, (NH4)2SO4; AN, NH4NO3; AC, NH4HCO3; AR, slow-release urea. Comparison was performed with different N forms within the same N level. Different lowercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)."

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