Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (10): 1081-1090.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0393

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Edge effects of forest gap in Pinus massoniana plantations on the ecological stoichiometry of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

Si-Meng SONG1, Dan-Ju ZHANG1,2, Jian ZHANG1,2,*(), Wan-Qin YANG1,2, Yan ZHANG1, Yang ZHOU1, Xun LI1   

  1. 1Monitoring Station for Eco-environments in the Rainy Zone of Southwest China, Institute of Ecology & Forestry, Sichuan Agriculture University, Chengdu 611130, China;

    2Collaborative Innovation Center of Ecological Security in the Upper Reaches of Yangtze River, Chengdu 611130, China
  • Online:2017-12-24 Published:2017-10-10
  • Contact: Jian ZHANG E-mail:sicauzhangjian@163.ccom

Abstract:

Aims Pinus massoniana is one of the major plantation tree species in the low hilly lands along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River Valley in China’s “Grain for Green” project. The objective of this study was to explore the edge effects of forest gap on the ecological stoichiometry of dominant tree species in a P. massoniana plantation forest.Methods We collected Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves in a 39-year-old P. massoniana plantation forest with seven forest gap sizes (G1: 100 m2; G2: 225 m2; G3: 400 m2; G4: 625 m2; G5: 900 m2; G6: 1 225 m2; G7: 1 600 m2, and the control: closed canopy) located in Gao County, south Sichuan Province during different seasons. The contents of C, N and P in leaves were measured, and the effects of edges, seasons and their interaction on leaf C, N and P contents and C:N:P stoichiometry were evaluated.Important findings The leaf C content, C:N and C:P of C. longepaniculatum at the edge of forest gaps in different seasons were all significantly higher than those of understory plants in P. massoniana plantation. With increasing size of forest gaps, leaf C content and C:N ratio, C:P and N:P of C. longepaniculatum increased initially and then decreased with the maximum at medium size (400-900 m2). From spring to winter, leaf N and P contents of C. longepaniculatum increased after an obvious decrease; and the C:N and C:P increased first but then decreased. However, the inflection point all appeared in the summer. The nutrient utilization of C. longepaniculatum at the edge of forest gaps was more efficient in summer and autumn than in spring and winter, indicating significant edge effects. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that gap size, relative light intensity and monthly average air temperature were the main environmental factors affecting the stoichiometry of C. longepaniculatum at the different edge of forest gaps in the P. massoniana plantation. These results indicated that forest gap with size 625 m2 had the highest organic matter storage and nutrient utilization efficiency in the edge areas in all seasons, and therefore had the most significant edge effect on leaf element stoichiometry.

Key words: gap size, edge effect, stoichiometry, Cinnamomum longepaniculatum, Pinus massoniana plantation

Fig. 1

Precipitation during different observation periods in Pinus massoniana plantations."

Table 1

General characteristics of the sampling plots in forest gaps with different sizes in Pinus massoniana plantations"

林窗 Gap 面积 Size (m2) 经纬度 Longitude and latitude 海拔 Altitude (m) 坡度 Slope (°) 坡向 Aspect 坡位 Slope position
G1 100 28.60° N, 104.56° E 423 24.5 SW 中坡 Middle slope
G2 225 28.61° N, 104.56° E 438 26.1 SE 中坡 Middle slope
G3 400 28.60° N, 104.56° E 408 23.5 SE 中坡 Middle slope
G4 625 28.60° N, 104.57° E 424 24.2 SE 中坡 Middle slope
G5 900 28.61° N, 104.57° E 441 21.5 S 中坡 Middle slope
G6 1 225 28.61° N, 104.56° E 418 27.0 SE 中坡 Middle slope
G7 1 600 28.60° N, 104.56° E 430 26.5 SE 中坡 Middle slope
CK - 28.61° N, 104.57° E 427 23.9 SE 中坡 Middle slope

Table 2

Soil physical and chemical properties of the sampling plots in forest gaps with different sizes in Pinus massoniana plantations (mean ± SE)"

林窗
Gap
容重
Bulk density
(g·cm-3)
含水量
Soil water content
(%)
最大持水量
Maximum field capacity
(g·kg-1)
pH值
pH value
土壤全碳
Soil total carbon
(g·kg-1)
土壤全氮
Soil total nitrogen
(g·kg-1)
土壤全磷
Soil total phosphorus
(g·kg-1)
G1 1.21 ± 0.09c 22.10 ± 3.09a 392.87 ± 6.44a 4.03 ± 0.11b 11.67 ± 2.99b 0.63 ± 0.15bc 0.45 ± 0.11c
G2 1.22 ± 0.11bc 21.67 ± 4.31a 364.43 ± 10.04ab 4.22 ± 0.17ab 11.15 ± 1.51b 0.57 ± 0.12d 0.44 ± 0.08d
G3 1.23 ± 0.08ab 21.39 ± 4.08ab 373.16 ± 8.57ab 4.24 ± 0.23ab 11.90 ± 1.45ab 0.56 ± 0.06d 0.49 ± 0.14a
G4 1.23 ± 0.11ab 22.15 ± 3.11a 379.47 ± 8.85ab 4.24 ± 0.10ab 12.67 ± 1.52a 0.64 ± 0.15b 0.49 ± 0.07a
G5 1.22 ± 0.12bc 21.40 ± 3.51ab 381.48 ± 11.54ab 4.34 ± 0.21ab 11.69 ± 1.21b 0.67 ± 0.12a 0.47 ± 0.15b
G6 1.23 ± 0.17a 21.99 ± 4.17a 381.24 ± 13.21ab 4.34 ± 0.27ab 11.90 ± 1.54ab 0.62 ± 0.23c 0.49 ± 0.12a
G7 1.23 ± 0.26a 21.33 ± 1.96ab 359.62 ± 6.14b 4.19 ± 0.11ab 11.14 ± 1.37b 0.54 ± 0.12e 0.46 ± 0.08bc
CK 1.24 ± 0.14a 20.16 ± 2.14b 358.19 ± 15.79b 4.46 ± 0.32a 9.48 ± 0.56c 0.47 ± 0.62f 0.43 ± 0.12d

Table 3

Environmental factors in the sampling plots in the edges of forest gaps with different sizes in different seasons"

林窗
Gap
月平均气温 Mean monthly air temperature (℃) 月平均空气湿度 Mean monthly air humidity (%) 相对光强 Relative light intensity (%)
春 Spring 夏 Summer 秋 Autumn 冬 Winter 春 Spring 夏 Summer 秋 Autumn 冬 Winter 春 Spring 夏 Summer 秋 Autumn 冬 Winter
G1 19.43 28.41 21.03 6.45 71.9 84.7 94.6 83.3 61.7 87.8 55.3 58.9
G2 19.23 28.51 22.05 6.21 72.4 87.2 94.5 86.1 63.6 90.5 57.4 59.2
G3 19.67 29.73 21.67 5.98 69.8 89.6 94.7 86.4 64.7 94.8 60.4 60.1
G4 19.76 29.88 22.22 9.03 72.2 90.0 96.3 89.1 67.9 95.4 65.2 66.3
G5 19.27 30.42 22.63 8.43 69.1 88.3 93.4 84.7 68.3 95.0 66.9 66.6
G6 19.92 30.63 21.91 7.11 71.3 86.1 92.6 85.2 71.0 96.4 69.4 68.8
G7 19.80 30.74 22.55 7.10 69.7 86.3 91.7 85.3 71.8 98.2 70.4 71.4
CK 18.32 27.66 20.09 3.12 72.5 90.3 93.6 87.3 18.6 16.4 16.2 17.2

Table 4

Two-way ANOVA on the effects of gap size, season, and their interaction on C, N, P and their stoichiometry of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum"

变异来源 Source of variation C N P C:N C:P N:P
林窗面积 Gap size (G) 198.314*** 2.072 5.789* 126.905*** 342.956*** 78.855***
季节 Season (S) 2.848 670.556*** 540.694*** 257.959*** 278.434*** 4.560
林窗面积×季节 Gap size × Season (G × S) 3.594 3.084 4.701 4.454 3.020 9.219**

Fig. 2

Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and their stoichiometry of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum in the edges of forest gaps with different sizes in different seasons in Pinus massoniana plantations (mean ± SE). Different capital letters indicate significant differences among seasons, and different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among forest gaps. G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, and G7 represent gaps with the size of 100 m2, 225 m2, 400 m2, 625 m2, 900 m2, 1 225 m2, and 1 600 m2, respectively; CK, closed canopy as control."

Fig. 3

The principal component analysis (PCA) on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and their stoichiometry of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum and environmental variables in the edges of forest gaps with different sizes in Pinus massoniana plantations. TC, total C in leaf; TN, total N in leaf; TP, total P in leaf; C:N, C:N in leaf; C:P, C:P in leaf; N:P, N:P in leaf. BD, bulk density; GS, gap size; MAH, monthly average humidity; MAT, monthly average air temperature; MC, moisture content; MMC, maximum moisture capacity; RLI, relative light intensity; STC, total C in soil; STN, total N in soil; STP, total P in soil."

Table 5

Correlation coefficients of environmental variables with ordination axes"

环境变量
Environmental variables
排序轴 Ordination axis
第1轴 Axis 1 第2轴 Axis 2
林窗面积 Gap size 0.506 4** -0.245 3
容重 Bulk density 0.134 5 0.333 5
含水量 Moisture content 0.038 0 -0.544 2**
最大持水量 Maximum moisture capacity 0.075 0 -0.381 7
pH值 pH value -0.027 0 0.381 1
土壤全碳 Total C in soil 0.251 1 -0.510 5**
土壤全氮 Total N in soil 0.210 3 -0.552 8**
土壤全磷 Total P in soil 0.425 4* -0.356 6
月平均气温 Monthly average air temperature 0.371 6 -0.659 5***
月平均湿度 Monthly average humidity 0.446 6* 0.210 0
相对光强 Relative light intensity 0.099 7 -0.811 4***
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