植物生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 375-386.DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.04.003

所属专题: 生态系统碳水能量通量 碳循环

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇


许皓1,2,*(), 李彦1,2, 谢静霞3, 程磊1,2, 赵彦1,2, 刘冉1,4   

  1. 1中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    2中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所绿洲生态与荒漠环境重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    3新疆乌鲁木齐市头屯河区农林水牧局, 乌鲁木齐 830022
    4中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-04-08 接受日期:2009-06-21 出版日期:2010-04-08 发布日期:2010-04-01
  • 通讯作者: 许皓
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: joycie@ms.xjb.ac.cn

Influence of solar radiation and groundwater table on carbon balance of phreatophytic desert shrub Tamarix

XU Hao1,2,*(), LI Yan1,2, XIE Jing-Xia3, CHENG Lei1,2, ZHAO Yan1,2, LIU Ran1,4   

  1. 1Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ürümqi 830011, China
    2Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology and Desert Environment, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ürümqi 830011, China
    3Bureau of Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Stockbreeding, Toutunhe District, ürümqi 830022, China
    4Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2009-04-08 Accepted:2009-06-21 Online:2010-04-08 Published:2010-04-01
  • Contact: XU Hao


全球气候变化和人类活动的加剧, 正导致古尔班通古特沙漠南缘原始盐生旱生荒漠地区的地下水位发生显著改变。大气污染导致该地区太阳辐射减少。以盐生荒漠建群种多枝柽柳(Tamarix ramosissima)为研究对象, 选择地下水位在2.9-4.5 m波动的典型原始生境, 观测了生长期内光合有效辐射和地下水位变化时的光合作用、蒸腾作用和叶水势等生理活动的季节变化, 调查了根系分布特征; 并利用涡度相关系统测定了生态系统碳水通量, 估算群落碳同化能力、蒸腾耗水量与叶面积指数的季节变化, 旨在揭示光合有效辐射和地下水位等环境因素对柽柳属(Tamarix)荒漠灌木群落光合作用的影响。研究结果表明: 降水造成的潜土层水分状况变化对多枝柽柳的碳平衡没有显著影响。深根系与气孔调节是多枝柽柳碳平衡适应荒漠环境水分状况的两个关键机制。特殊的气孔行为体现了多枝柽柳以高水分消耗为代价将其碳获取最大化的适应对策; 多枝柽柳生理与群落尺度的水分平衡和碳获取均依赖于深根系获取的稳定地下水源, 缓和的地下水位波动将不会扰动其现有的碳/水平衡, 地下水位剧烈下降将危及多枝柽柳的生存。此外, 光合有效辐射是另一个主要影响因素, 与群落碳获取呈显著正相关关系。群落碳同化能力的季节变化是光合有效辐射和地下水位共同影响下光合作用物候学特征的体现。过度开采地下水和直接破坏原生植被的行为, 将会严重地干扰多枝柽柳群落的生存, 进而破坏该区域现有的生态水文过程。

关键词: 群落碳水通量, 荒漠生态学, 生理生态响应, 叶面积指数, 深根植物, 植物用水策略


Aims The groundwater table has changed and air pollution has been reducing solar radiation on the southern periphery of China’s Gurbantonggut Desert. Our objective was to investigate the response and adaptation of Tamarix ramosissima, a native dominant desert shrub in Central Asia, towards variation in groundwater and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), in terms of ecophysiological activities, morphological characteristics and community carbon/water balances.

Methods During the growing season from 2005 to 2007, we carried out experiments in the original habitat of T. ramosissima, where the groundwater table fluctuated from 2.9 to 4.5 m. Photosynthesis, transpiration, leaf water potential, water-use efficiency and root distribution were examined to reveal the water-use strategy of the species, and CO2 and H2O fluxes above an undisturbed T. ramosissima ecosystem were measured by eddy covariance method to evaluate net carbon assimilation, water loss and leaf area index (LAI).

Important findings Physiological activity and community carbon uptake of T. ramosissima did not respond to sustained drought in upper soil or rainfall pulses, and its photosynthetic consistency is achieved by its water-use pattern. Special stomatal behavior and root distribution are two main mechanisms. Tamarix ramosissima tends to maximize its carbon gain at the cost of higher water consumption, attributable to its phreatophytic root system that ensures sufficient groundwater supply and avoids the effects of water deficiency in upper soil. Tamarix ramosissima can adapt to moderate fluctuation of groundwater table, but severe decline will threaten its survival, and hence the overexploitation of groundwater will cause severe degradation of Tamarix-dominated perennial vegetation and disturb the original ecohydrological processes in this arid region. PAR is another important environmental factor positively correlating with community carbon uptake. The LAI indicates that the seasonal pattern in community carbon assimilation represents the combined effects of groundwater table and PAR on the phenological photosynthesis capacity. It shows that the integrated study on different scales is an effective approach to further the understanding of desert shrub adaptive strategies and ecosystem processes under variable environmental conditions.

Key words: community carbon/water flux, desert ecology, ecophysiological response, leaf area index, phreatophyte, plant water-use strategy