Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2013, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 684-690.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00071

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of different soil textures on the growth and distribution of root system and yield in peanut

JIA Li-Hua,ZHAO Chang-Xing,WANG Yue-Fu(),WANG Ming-Lun   

  1. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming Technology, College of Agronomy and Plant Protection, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
  • Received:2013-02-25 Accepted:2013-05-14 Online:2013-07-01 Published:2013-07-05
  • Contact: WANG Yue-Fu

Abstract:

Aims This paper explores soil types to suit the development of root system and improve the yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea).
Methods We used the method of box-planted cultivation to study the effects of different soil textures, i.e., sandy, loam and clay soils, on the development and distribution of root system and yield of peanut.
Important findings Root dry matter weight of peanut in sandy and loam soils was higher significantly than in clay soil; however, in the later growth stage, the decrease of root dry matter weight of peanut in clay soil is relative slow compared with peanut in loam and sandy soil. In clay soil, the root system of peanut was mainly distributed in the shallow soil layer, but the decrease of root activity in the upper layers was much slower in the late growth period. Sandy soil was helpful for the root system of peanut to grow to the deeper soil layer, but the decrease of root activity in the surface layers was faster in the later growth period. The effects of loam soil on the spatial and temporal distribution of the development and activity of peanut roots were between sandy and clay soil. Sandy soil favored enlargement of the peanut pod, and the dry matter accumulation of peanut pod in sandy soil was earlier and faster, but the dry matter accumulation in the later growth period was less in sandy soil. In loam soil, the dry matter accumulation of peanut pod was mainly concentrated in middle and later periods, while clay soil was not suitable for the dry matter accumulation of peanut pod in the entire growth period. The pod yield, kernel yield and available pod number were largest in loam soil, second in sandy soil and lowest in clay soil. Results suggested that loam soil, with mid-levels of aeration and water and fertilizer conservation among the three soil textures, was most suitable for the growth and yield of peanut.

Key words: growth, peanut, root system, soil texture, yield