植物生态学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (9): 909-916.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0087

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四种豆科作物的光合生理和生长发育对弱光的响应

邹长明1, 王允青2,*(), 刘英2, 张晓红1, 唐杉2   

  1. 1安徽科技学院, 安徽凤阳 233100
    2安徽省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所, 合肥 230031
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-09 接受日期:2015-07-23 出版日期:2015-09-03 发布日期:2015-09-23
  • 通讯作者: 王允青 E-mail:yunqingw@126.com
  • 作者简介:

    *作者简介: E-mail:wangyifeng6481@aliyun.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201103005), 国家农作物种质资源平台运行服务项目(2012-019), 作物种质资源保护和利用项目(NB2013-2130135-34)

Responses of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in four legume species

ZOU Chang-Ming1, WANG Yun-Qing2,*(), LIU Ying2, ZHANG Xiao-Hong1, TANG Shan2   

  1. 1Anhui Science and Technology University, Fengyang, Anhui 233100, China
    2Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
  • Received:2015-04-09 Accepted:2015-07-23 Online:2015-09-03 Published:2015-09-23
  • Contact: Yun-Qing WANG E-mail:yunqingw@126.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

为了确定豆科作物作为林果行间套种作物的适宜性, 于2014年通过田间试验和盆栽试验对4种豆科作物的耐阴能力及其光合生理进行了研究。测定全光和弱光处理(全光的48%)下豆科作物在初花期的叶片光合特征参数、光合色素含量与核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化酶(RuBPCase)活性, 监测其生长发育对弱光的响应。结果表明: 弱光使供试作物的最大净光合速率、光饱和点、光补偿点、表观量子效率和暗呼吸速率不同程度地向耐阴植物变化; 弱光还使供试作物的净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、瞬时水分利用效率和RuBPCase活性不同程度地下降, 而胞间CO2浓度显著上升; 遮阴后, 乌豇豆(Vigna cylindrica)和绿豆(Vigna radiata)的叶绿素(Chl) a和Chl b含量显著增加, Chl a/b值显著降低, 大猪屎豆(Crotalaria assamica)和望江南(Senna occidentalis)的光合色素含量也有不同程度的变化; 弱光使供试作物茎变细, 侧枝数减少, 生物量和干物质积累效率降低, 根冠比降低, 根瘤量减少, 叶片变小变薄, 叶片数减少, 叶面积指数降低; 弱光胁迫下, 大猪屎豆不开花, 望江南只开花不结实, 而绿豆和乌豇豆开花数减少, 花期缩短, 种子产量显著降低。根据供试作物的光合特性和生长发育对弱光的响应, 得出它们的耐阴能力排序是: 乌豇豆>绿豆>望江南>大猪屎豆, 其中乌豇豆和绿豆适宜与林果套种, 而望江南和大猪屎豆不适宜套种。

关键词: 豆科作物, 遮阴, 光合特性, 光合色素, 生长发育, 产量

Abstract:
Aims In order to determine the adaptability of legumes as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted in 2014 to test the shade tolerance and physiological mechanisms of four legume species.
Methods The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigments contents and the activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were measured during the first bloom stage. The responses of growth to weak light were likewise studied.
Important findings The results showed that the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point, light compensation point, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate of the four legume species changed into those of shade-tolerant plants under the weak light stress. The weak light reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the legumes. In contrast, the weak light increased intercellular CO2 concentration significantly. Contents of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b in leaves of Vigna cylindrica (VCS) and Vigna radiata (VR) increased significantly, while Chl a/b in the leaves decreased dramatically after shading. Other two species changed photosynthetic pigments contents after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the four legume species, such as reducing stem diameter and branching quantity, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, debasing leaf area and leaf thickness, reducing leaf quantity and leaf area index. Crotalaria assamica (CA) can not bloom under the weak light stress. Flowers were not strong enough to seed for Senna occidentalis (SO) under the weak light. The weak light also changed reproductive growth of VCS and VR significantly, such as debasing flowers quantity and flowering time, as well as decreasing seed yield. In conclusion, according to the responses of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in the legumes, we concluded that the shade tolerance ranking of four legume species from high to low is as follows: VCS, VR, SO and CA. VCS and VR are suitable for orchard interplanting. However, SO and CA are not suitable for orchard interplanting.

Key words: legume, shading, photosynthetic characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, growth, yield