Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 486-500.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0047

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Distribution patterns of alien invasive plants and their influences on native plants of Hainan Island

LUO Wen-Qi1, FU Shao-Huai2, YANG Xiao-Bo1,*(), CHEN Yu-Kai1, ZHOU Wei1, YANG Qi1, TAO Chu1, ZHOU Wen-Song1   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Production and Development Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resource, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
    2Rural Environmental Protection Energy Station of Hainan, Haikou 570228, China
  • Received:2014-08-05 Accepted:2015-04-22 Online:2015-05-26 Published:2015-05-01
  • Contact: Xiao-Bo YANG E-mail:yanfengxb@163.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract: Aims

Our objective was to explore the distribution patterns of 20 noxious invasive plants in Hainan Island notified by the National Ministry of Agriculture, and their influences on native plants. We also focused on investigating the traits of six most widely spread invasive plants and plant distributions in seven types of terrestrial ecosystems. Three hypotheses were deployed in this study: (1) the ecological effects of plant invasion were related to the characteristics of invaded ecosystems and successional phases of invaded communities; (2) the invasive plants rather affected certain functional groups than the whole communities; (3) and most invasive plant species tended to colonize frequently disturbed ecosystems, while they were usually excluded by intact forest ecosystems.

Methods

The plot survey was conducted to investigate the distributions of the 20 target invasive plants. The appearance frequency of the six most widely spread invasive plants (i.e., Chromolaena odorata, Praxelis clematidea, Mimosa pudica, Wedelia trilobata, Conyza sumatrensis, and Lantana camara) was compared among seven terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., secondary forest, farmland, grassland, abandoned land, plantation, village, and forest edge) to evaluate the invasibility of different ecosystems. The plots invaded by target species were classified, and species richness of native species in these invaded plots was compared using one-way ANOVAS. Relationships between the total coverage of invasive plants and the species richness of native plants were assessed using a linear regression model.

Important findings

(1) A total of 11 noxious invasive plants were found in Hainan Island, accounting for 55% of the target specie. (2) The target invasive species were mostly distributed in the northeastern and southwestern regions of Hainan Island, less in the southeastern region, and least in the central region. (3) An order of the intensity regarding plant invasiveness was expressed as Praxelis clematidea > Chromolaena odorata > Mimosa pudica > Wedelia trilobata > Lantana camara > Conyza sumatrensis. The appearance frequency of Conyza sumatrensis and Lantana camara showed no significant differences among the surveyed ecosystems, while Praxelis clematidea, Mimosa pudica and Wedelia trilobata had obviously higher appearance frequency in plantations and abandoned lands, in farmlands, and in plantations, respectively. (4) Farmlands, plantations and abandoned lands were the most frequently invaded ecosystems; but forest edges and natural secondary forests appeared to be less vulnerable to plant invasion. (5) The appearance frequency of invasive plants was negatively correlated with plant coverage of the community invaded by the target species. The total coverage of invasive plants and the richness of native plant species showed a positive correlation in grasslands when the coverage was within a certain extent, and a negative correlation both in forest edges and abandoned lands, and no obvious correlation in plantations farmlands and village sites.

Key words: distribution, Hainan Island, invasive plants, influence, native plants

Fig. 1

Distribution of surveyed and analyzed sites in Hainan Island."

Fig. 2

The richness of invasive species and its distribution across cities and counties of Hainan Island."

Table 1

Composition of invasive plant species in different types of ecosystems"

生态系统
Ecosystem
入侵植物物种
Invasive plant species
总数
Total
农田
Farmland
喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 银胶菊 Parthenium hystero, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 10
弃耕地
Abandoned land
喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 银胶菊 Parthenium hystero, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 10
种植园
Plantation
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 7
林缘
Forest edge
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 6
村落
Village
喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 银胶菊 Parthenium hystero, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 10
草地
Grassland
喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 7
次生林
Secondary forest
无 None 0

Table 2

Comparison of frequencies of plant invasion among different types of ecosystems (mean ± SE)"

入侵植物
Invasive plant species
植物入侵频率 Frequency of plants invasions
弃耕地
Abandoned land
种植园
Plantation
村落
Village
林缘
Forest edge
农田
Farmland
草地
Grassland
假臭草 Praxelis clematidea 0.709 ± 0.519a 0.946 ± 0.472a 0.485 ± 0.298b 0.556 ± 0.529bc 0.790 ± 0.451bc 0.685 ± 0.218b
含羞草 Mimosa pudica 0.502 ± 0.407a 0.331 ± 0.357a 0.274 ± 0.351ab 0.204 ± 0.430a 0.592 ± 0.455c 0.474 ± 0.250ab
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata 0.749 ± 0.493a 0.701 ± 0.465a 0.628 ± 0.326a 0.556 ± 0.529a 0.733 ± 0.459a 0.771 ± 0.226a
苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis 0.273 ± 0.431a 0.339 ± 0.443a 0.291 ± 0.394a 0.186 ± 0.347a 0.355 ± 0.527a 0.191 ± 0.094a
假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare 0.118 ± 0.211a - 0.112 ± 0.185a - 0.051 ± 0.125a -
马缨丹 Lantana camara 0.118 ± 0.211a 0.025 ± 0.092a 0.112 ± 0.185a 0.099 ± 0.188a 0.051 ± 0.125a 0.092 ± 0.137a
喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 0.126 ± 0.211a 0.022 ± 0.115a 0.032 ± 0.105a - 0.091 ± 0.114a 0.052 ± 0.137a
三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata 0.126 ± 0.391a 0.226 ± 0.173b 0.029 ± 0.140a 0.050 ± 0.169a 0.179 ± 0.397a 0.129 ± 0.140a
银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus 0.085 ± 0.121a 0.015 ± 0.002a 0.112 ± 0.105a - 0.051 ± 0.125a 0.092 ± 0.037a
凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes - - 0.025 ± 0.140a - 0.012 ± 0.021a -
微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 0.130 ± 0.125a 0.085 ± 0.003a 0.112 ± 0.115a - 0.075 ± 0.121a -
累计入侵频率
Accumulated frequency of plants invasions

2.936

2.675

2.212

1.601

2.930

2.486

Table 3

Community coverage and distribution patterns of invasive plants in different ecosystems"

入侵种
Invasive plants species
盖度等级
Coverage grade
占入侵样方比例
Ratio of the
invaded plot
入侵植物盖度等级与入侵频率的相关性
Relationship between frequency of plant invasions and degree of community coverage
草地
Grassland
林缘
Forest edge
弃耕地
Abandoned land
村落
Village
农田
Farmland
种植园
Plantation
飞机草
Chromolaena odorata
1%-20% 66%
-0.792*

-0.912**

-0.783*

-0.725*

-0.860**

-0.596
21%-40% 21%
41%-60% 9%
≥61% 5%
含羞草
Mimosa pudica
1%-20% 80%
-0.780*

-0.661*

-0.629

-0.710*

0.682*

-0.564
21%-40% 7%
41%-60% 13%
≥61% -
假臭草
Praxelis clematidea
1%-20% 66%
-0.788*

-0.739*

0.139*

-0.621

-0.702*

-0.893
21%-40% 19%
41%-60% 5%
≥61% 10%
苏门白酒草
Conyza sumatrensis
1%-20% 91%
-0.484

-0.688

-0.729

0.661

-0.600

0.688
21%-40% 9%
41%-60% -
≥61% -
马缨丹
Lantana camara
1%-20% 60%
-0.600

-0.899

-0.612**

-0.544*

-0.563

-0.672
21%-40% 24%
41%-60% 11%
≥61% 5%
三裂叶蟛蜞菊
Wedelia trilobata
1%-20% 36%
-0.600*

0.403

0.231

0.243

0.356

0.900**
21%-40% 7%
41%-60% 7%
≥61% 50%

Fig. 3

The relationship between the number of invasive plant species and the average number of native plant species per plot in different types of ecosystems (mean ± SE). A, Farmland. B, Grassland. C, Abandoned land. D, Plantation. E, Village. F, Forest edge. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 4

The relationship between the total coverage of invasive plants and the number of native plant species sampled from quadrats of six ecosystems. A, Plantation. B, Village. C, Farmland. D, Grassland. E, Forest edge. F, Abandoned land."

Supplementary Table 1

Checklist of invasive plant species in surveyed cities/counties of Hainan Island"

市/县
City/County
调查到的入侵种
Documented invasive species
总数
Total
海口市
Haikou City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 11
文昌市
Wenchang City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes 10
琼海市
Qionghai City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 10
万宁市
Wanning City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 9
陵水黎族自治县
Lingshui Lizu
Autonomous County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 9
保亭黎族苗族自治县
Baoting Lizu-Maozu
Autonomous County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 9
三亚市
Sanya City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes 9
乐东黎族自治县
Ledong Lizu
Autonomous County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 11
东方市
Dongfang City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 9
昌江黎族自治县
Changjiang Lizu
Autonomous County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes 10
白沙黎族自治县
Baisha Lizu
Autonomous County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 8
澄迈县
Chengmai County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 10
临高县
Linggao County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes 11
五指山市
Wuzhishan City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 9
琼中黎族苗族自治县
Qiongzhong Lizu Miaozu
Autonomous County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides 8
定安县
Ding’an County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 9
屯昌县
Tunchang County
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 9
儋州市
Danzhou City
飞机草 Chromolaena odorata, 含羞草 Mimosa pudica, 假臭草 Praxelis clematidea, 马缨丹 Lantana camara, 苏门白酒草 Conyza sumatrensis, 银胶菊 Parthenium hysterophorus, 三裂叶蟛蜞菊 Wedelia trilobata, 喜旱莲子草 Alternanthera philoxeroides, 假高粱 Pseudosorghum fasciculare, 凤眼蓝 Eichhornia crassipes, 微甘菊 Mikania micrantha 11
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