Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 290-300.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0258

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effluxes of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide and their responses to increasing nitrogen deposition in the Gurbantünggüt Desert of Xinjiang, China

Xiao-Bing ZHOU1, Yuan-Ming ZHANG1,*(), Ye TAO1,2, Lin WU1,3   

  1. 1Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ürümqi 830011, China

    2Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui 246000, China
    and
    3Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei 445000, China
  • Online:2017-04-12 Published:2017-03-10
  • Contact: Yuan-Ming ZHANG E-mail:zhangym@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail: kangjingyao_nj@163.com

Abstract:

Aims Desert soils play an important role in the exchange of major greenhouse gas (GHG) between atmosphere and soil. However, many uncertainties existed in understanding of desert soil role, especially in efflux evaluation under a changing environment. Methods We conducted plot-based field study in center of the Gurbantünggüt Desert, Xinjiang, and applied six rates of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on the plots, i.e. 0 (N0), 0.5 (N0.5), 1.0 (N1), 3.0 (N3), 6.0 (N6) and 24.0 (N24) g·m-2·a-1. The exchange rates of N2O, CH4 and CO2 during two growing seasons were measured for two years after N applications. Important findings The average efflux of two growing seasons from control plots (N0) were 4.8 μg·m-2·h-1, -30.5 μg·m-2·h-1 and 46.7 mg·m-2·h-1 for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The effluxes varied significantly among seasons. N0, N0.5 and N1 showed similar exchange of N2O in spring and summer, which was relatively higher than in autumn, while the rates of N2O in N6 and N24 were controled by time points of N applications. The uptake of CH4 was relatively higher in both spring and summer, and lower in autumn. Emission of CO2 changed minor from spring to summer, and greatly decreased in autumn in the first measured year. In the second year, the emission patterns were changed by rates of N added. N additions generally stimulated the emission of N2O, while the effects varied in different seasons and years. In addition, no obvious trends were found in the emission factor of N2O. The uptake of CH4 was not significantly affected by N additions. N additions did not change CO2 emissions in the first year, while high N significantly reduced the CO2 emissions in spring and summer of the second year, without affected in autumn. Structure equation model analysis on the factors suggested that N2O, CH4 and CO2 were dominantly affected by the N application rates, soil temperature or moisture and plant density, respectively. Over the growing seasons, both the net efflux and the global warming potential caused by N additions were small.

Key words: nitrogen deposition, N2O, CH4, CO2, biomass, structural equation model

Fig. 1

Changes in air temperature and precipitation of the study area for 2010 and 2011."

Fig. 2

Changes in soil temperature and moisture at different nitrogen (N) treatments on the gas collected day in 2010 and 2011. N0, N0.5, N1, N3, N6 and N24 indicate 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g·m-2 ·a-1 of simulated N deposition on the studied plots, respectively."

Table 1

Results of repeated measures ANOVAS for the gas efflux on the effects of seasons, nitrogen (N) treatments and their interactions"

自由度 Degree of freedom N2O CH4 CO2
季节 Season 9 13.41** 12.40** 63.09**
N 5 53.19** 1.84 1.55
季节× N
Season × N
45 5.07** 0.55 2.42**

Fig. 3

Seasonal changes in N2O (A), CH4 (B) and CO2 (C) effluxes in 2010 and 2011. N0, N0.5, N1, N3, N6 and N24 indicate 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g·m-2·a-1 of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on the studied plots, respectively."

Fig. 4

N2O effluxes under different concentration nitrogen (N) treatments (mean ± SE). A, May. B, August. C, October. * indicates significant differences between two years. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments in the same year. N0, N0.5, N1, N3, N6 and N24 indicate 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g·m-2 ·a-1 of simulated N deposition on the studied plots, respectively."

Fig. 5

CH4 effluxes under different nitrogen (N) treatments (mean± SE). A, May. B, August. C, October. * indicates significant differences between two years. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments in the same year. N0, N0.5, N1, N3, N6 and N24 indicate 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g·m-2·a-1 of simulated N deposition on the plots, respectively."

Table 2

Emission factor of N2O in different nitrogen (N)-added treatments"

年 Year N0.5 N1 N3 N6 N24
2010 0.05 0.11 0.09 0.16 0.11
2011 -0.33 0 0.03 0.04 0.03

Fig. 6

CO2 effluxes under different nitrogen (N) treatments (mean ± SE). A, May. B, August. C, October. * indicates significant differences between two years. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments in the same year. N0, N0.5, N1, N3, N6 and N24 indicate 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g·m-2·a-1 of simulated N deposition on the plots, respectively."

Table 3

The ratios of greenhouse gas effluxes and global warming potentials of nitrogen (N) added plots (N0.5, N1, N3, N6, N24) to controls (N0) during growing seasons"

氮处理 N treatment 2010 2011
N2O CH4 CO2 增温潜力 GWP N2O CH4 CO2 增温潜力 GWP
N0.5 1.02 0.92 0.98 0.99 0.89 0.89 0.91 0.91
N1 1.08 0.98 1.04 1.04 1.00 1.06 1.03 1.03
N3 1.19 0.88 1.14 1.15 1.07 0.86 0.91 0.94
N6 1.67 1.03 1.27 1.29 1.15 1.13 0.72 1.06
N24 2.81 0.90 1.06 1.12 1.48 1.00 0.55 0.92

Fig. 7

Final fitted structural equation models depicting relative effects of biotic and abiotic variables on the effulxes of greenhouse gas. A, N2O (χ2 = 0.00, p = 0.988; RMSEA = 0.000, p = 0.989). B, CH4 (χ2 = 0.00, p = 0.988; RMSEA = 0.000, p = 0.989). C, CO2 (χ2 = 5.12, p = 0.402; RMSEA = 0.020, p = 0.487). Continuous and dashed arrows indicate positve and negative relationships, respectively. Arrow width is scaled to be proportional to path coefficients which appear adjacent to arrows. RMSEA, root mean square error of approximation. *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01."

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