Carbon and water fluxes

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    Effects of CO2 Enrichment on CH4 Emission From Rice Paddies
    WANG Da-Li, ZHU Li-Min
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    1999, 23 (5): 451-457.  
    Abstract2112)      PDF (415KB)(969)       Save
    An experiment was carried out in the open-top chambers for elucidating the effect of CO2 enrichment on CH4emission from rice. Significant stimulation of CO2 enrichment on CH4 emission was found in the tillering, panicle initiation, booting, grain filling and maturity stages with the CH4 emission increments of 253%, 288%, 273% and 157% ,respectively. The highest flux, 1.91mgCH4·d-1·p-1,occurred in 106 days after transplanting. We propose that the increase in rice root biomass and root exudate might be the major reason for the stimulation of CH4 emission.
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    HAN Guang-Xuan, ZHU Bo, JIANG Chang-Sheng
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2006, 30 (3): 450-456.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2006.0060
    Abstract2799)   HTML2)    PDF (320KB)(1468)       Save

    Measurements of soil respiration, soil temperature and rice biomass were made during the rice growing season in the hill region of the central Sichuan Basin from April to September 2003. Characteristics of the daily and seasonal variations of soil respiration and their controlling factors are presented. The results showed that daily variations of soil respiration could be modeled with a single peak curve. The minimum and maximum soil respiration values from rice fields occurred at 7∶00 and 15∶00, respectively. Daily soil respiration rates were highly correlated with 5 cm depth soil temperature measurements. The mean rate of soil respiration was 121.76 mg·m-2·h-1, ranging from 18.00 to 269.69 mg·m-2·h-1 during the growing season. Rice root biomass and 5 cm depth soil temperatures were the major factors influencing soil CO2 emissions during the entire growing season. There was a significant relationship between the rate of soil respiration and root biomass of rice during the initial growing season. From the middle/late stages to mature stage, 5 cm depth soil temperatures played a key role in regulating soil CO2 emissions from rice fields, while the relationship between the rate of soil respiration and water levels in the rice fields was not obvious.

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    Cited: CSCD(34)
    SUN Wei, LIN Guang-Hui, CHEN Shi-Ping, HUANG Jian-Hui
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2005, 29 (5): 851-862.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2005.0113
    Abstract3290)   HTML17)    PDF (856KB)(1509)       Save

    Stable isotopes are used as both natural integrators and tracers of complicated biological, ecological and biogeochemical processes, and their responses to environmental changes at different spatial and temporal scales. In this article, the application of stable isotopes and the Keeling plot approach to carbon and water exchange studies of terrestrial ecosystems were reviewed. We focused mainly on the current applications and potential development of stable isotope techniques and the Keeling plot approach in conjunction with concentration and flux measurements of CO2 and water in terrestrial ecosystems. For these applications it is critical to know the isotopic identities of specific ecosystem components, such as the isotopic compositions of CO2, organic matter, liquid water, and water vapor, as well as the associated isotopic fractionations, in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Based on the principle of mass conservation, the Keeling plot approach combines measurements of stable isotope ratios and concentrations of CO2, water or other trace gases, and allows the identification of the contributions of various ecosystems, or ecosystem components, to the net exchange fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere, and the estimation of net ecosystem isotopic discrimination and disequilibrium effect. Net ecosystem carbon fluxes can be partitioned into C uptake during photosynthesis and C release during respiration or evapotranspiration into leaf transpiration and soil evaporation by the Keeling plot technique. This approach also allows partitioning urban CO2 sources into gasoline combustion, natural gas combustion and biogenic respiration. Recent modifications of the Keeling plot approach permit examination of CO2 recycling in forest ecosystems. At the global scale, we can estimate relative contributions of terrestrial and ocean ecosystems to the global carbon cycle by combining stable isotope techniques, the Keeling plot approach and terrestrial ecosystem models. However, applications of stable isotope techniques and the Keeling plot approach to ecological research are sometimes constrained by the heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, selection of suitable isotopic sampling protocols is another factor that we should consider in its application. Nevertheless, with new improvements in analytic protocols in the near future, stable isotope techniques and the Keeling plot approach will become one of the most effective techniques for understanding carbon and water relationships in terrestrial ecosystems.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    DENG Qi, ZHOU Guo-Yi, LIU Ju-Xiu, LIU Shi-Zhong, DUAN Hong-Lang, CHEN Xiao-Mei, ZHANG De-Qiang
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2009, 33 (6): 1023-1033.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.06.002
    Abstract2451)   HTML1)    PDF (953KB)(1470)       Save

    Aims Responses of soil respiration to global change play an important role in global carbon cycling, but the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation on soil respiration in subtropical China are unclear. Our objective was to test the effects of increased [CO2], N deposition and precipitation on soil respiration and to determine how they influence soil respiration in subtropical China.
    Methods A model forest ecosystem was constructed of six tree species native to South China. The species were exposed to four experimental treatments in open-top chambers beginning March 2005. Three chambers were used for elevated [CO2] (CC), two for high N treatment (NN) and the control (CO) and one for elevated precipitation (HR). The CC treatment was achieved by supplying additional CO 2 from a tank until the chambers had a concentration of (700 ± 20) μmol CO 2·mol-1. The NN treatment was achieved by spraying seedlings once a week for a total amount of NH4NO3 of 100 kg N·hm-2·a-1. The HR treatment was achieved by weekly irrigation with 100 L water.
    Important findings For two years, soil respiration displayed strong seasonal patterns with higher values observed in the wet season (April to September) and lower values in the dry season (October to March) in the control chambers (CO) and the CC and NN treatments (p<0.001). There was no seasonal difference in the HR treatment (p>0.05). The CC enrichment affected soil respiration significantly (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in annual CO2effluxes between CO and the other two treatments. The annual CO2 effluxes reached 4 241.7, 3 400.8, 3 432.0 and 3 308.4 g CO2·m-2·a-1 in the CC, NN, HR and CO treatments, respectively. Soil respiration showed diverse responses between dry and wet seasons under different treatments. Higher soil respiration in the CC and NN treatments occurred in the wet season (p<0.05). In the dry season, soil respiration increased in the HR treatment (p<0.05) and decreased in the NN treatment (p<0.05). We found significant exponential relationships between soil respiration rates and soil temperature and significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and soil moisture (below 15%).

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    LIU Ling-Ling, LIU Yun-Fen, WEN Xue-Fa, WANG Ying-Hong
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2008, 32 (2): 431-439.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.02.022
    Abstract2888)   HTML2)    PDF (2053KB)(881)       Save

    Aims Methane (CH4) plays an important role in the greenhouse effects. Our objectives were to evaluate the CH4 budget, understand seasonal variation of CH4, and explore effects of temperature and moisture on CH4 flux in a mid-subtropical pine plantation to provide data for estimating the influence of subtropical forest ecosystems on greenhouse effects.
    Methods We analyzed CH4 flux from soils in the Qianyanzhou red earth hill region of China for 16 months from September 2004 to December 2005, using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique.
    Important findings The soil of this type of pine plantation was a sink of CH4 to the atmosphere as a whole; annual CH4 flux ranged from 7.67 to -67.17 μg·m-2·h-1 with average of -15.530 μg·m-2·h-1 under a forest soil treatment and from 9.31 to -90.36 μg·m-2·h-1 with average of -16.53 μg·m-2·h-1 under a litter-free treatment. CH4 absorption had similarly seasonal variations with a sequence of autumn > summer > spring > winter for both treatments, but differed in variation ranges and time. The litter-free soil had larger ranges of seasonal variations, maximum CH4 sink was in October and minimum sink was in March. Meanwhile, the corresponding maximum and minimum CH4 sinks in the forest soil were in the September and February, respectively, a month earlier than litter-free treatment. Analysis of correlations between CH4 flux and temperature and moisture showed that CH4 flux had a significant positive correlation to soil temperature at 5 cm depth and a significant negative correlation to soil water content at 5 cm depth. Partial correlations showed the combined effects of moisture and temperature on CH4 flux in different seasons. Temperature was a limiting factor for soil absorption of CH4 during winter (December to February), but soil absorption increased during the rainy season (March to May). From July to August, CH4 absorption increased with the declining soil moisture but was restricted by high temperature. During the fall (September to November), CH4 absorption reached the maximum value for suitable combined effects of temperature and moisture. In summary, CH4 absorption increased with soil temperature and decreased with soil water content, but was restricted by high temperature.

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    Soil respiration and the 20-year change in three temperate forests in Mt. Dongling, Beijing
    YAO Hui,HU Xue-Yang,ZHU Jiang-Ling,ZHU Jian-Xiao,JI Cheng-Jun,FANG Jing-Yun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2015, 39 (9): 849-856.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0081
    Abstract1429)   HTML67)    PDF (366KB)(1820)       Save

    Our objective was to explore changes in soil respiration of three temperate forests in Mt. Dongling, Beijing over the last 20 years from the year of 1994-1995 to 2012-2015.


    We re-investigated the permanent plots of three temperate forests (Betula platyphylla forest, Quercus wutaishanica forest and Pinus tabuliformis forest) which were established in 1992. We measured soil respiration for 3 years (2012-2015) using a LI-8100 Soil Respiration System. Continuous soil temperatures at 5 cm depth were measured at the same time. Annual soil respiration was accumulated using a relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature .

    <i>Important findings</i>

    We found that soil respiration rates were significantly correlated with soil temperature at 5 cm depth and that these correlations differed remarkably among the three forests. Annual soil respiration in B. platyphylla forest was highest, with a 3-year average of (574 ± 21) g C·m-2, followed by Q. wutaishanica forest ((455 ± 31) g C·m-2) and P. tabuliformis forest ((414 ± 35) g C·m-2). In the past 20 years, annual soil respiration in all these forests increased significantly: compared to 1994-1995, the average in 2012-2015 increased by 85%, 17% and 73% for B. platyphylla, Q. wutaishanica, and P. tabuliformis forests, respectively.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    YANG Jin_Yan, WANG Chuan_Kuan
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2006, 30 (2): 286-294.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2006.0038
    Abstract2620)   HTML4)    PDF (807KB)(1512)       Save

    Forest ecosystems in northeastern China play an important role in both local and national carbon budgets because of their large area extent and huge amount of carbon storage. The spatial and temporal changes in soil surface CO2 flux (RS), the major CO2 source to the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems, directly influence the local and regional carbon budgets. However, few data on RS were available for this region. In this study, we used an infrared gas exchange analyzer (LI_COR 6400) to measure the RS and related biophysical factors, and examined soil temperature and moisture effects on soil respiration for six secondary temperate forest ecosystem types: Mongolian oak (dominated by Quercus mongolica), poplar_birch (dominated by Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla), mixed_wood (no dominant tree species), hard_wood forests (dominated by Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica and Phellodendron amurense), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) plantations. Our specific objectives were to: 1) compare the soil temperature, soil moisture, RS, and Q10 (temperature coefficient) of the six forest types; 2) quantify the seasonality of RS and related environmental factors; and 3) determine the environmental factors affecting the RS, and construct models of RS against the related environmental factors.

    Soil temperature, soil moisture and their interactions significantly (p < 0.01) influenced the RS, but their effects depended on forest type and soil depth. These factors could explain 67.5%-90.6% of the variations in the RS data. During the growing season, the soil temperature at 10 cm depth in the different forest types did not differ significantly but soil moisture did. The RS for the oak, pine, larch, hardwood, mixed_wood, and poplar_birch stands varied from 1.89-5.23, 1.09-4.66, 0.95-3.52, 1.13-5.97, 1.05-6.58, and 1.11-5.76 μmol CO 2·m-2·s-1, respectively; the Q10 values for those stands were 2.32, 2.76, 2.57, 2.94, 3.55 and 3.54, correspondingly. The seasonality of RS was driven mainly by soil temperature and moisture, and was roughly consistent with that of soil temperature. The broad_leaved forests had a higher soil respiration rate than those of coniferous forests probably because of a more suitable soil thermal and moisture regimes and other biological factors.

    The temperature sensitivity coefficient of soil respiration (Q10) showed a convex_type curve along a soil moisture gradient. The Q10 tended to increase when soil moisture increased from 30.19 to 40.7, and then declined probably because the extremely high soil moisture content in the hardwood forest may impede activities of soil microbes and plant roots, and thus decrease decomposition rates and soil CO2 emission. Our study strongly recommended that estimation of soil surface CO2 flux from forest ecosystems should consider the comprehensive effects of both soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration so as to reduce uncertainties of ecosystem carbon budget studies in this region.

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    Cited: CSCD(75)
    GU Feng-Xue, YU Gui-Rui, WEN Xue-Fa, TAO Bo, LI Ke-Rang, LIU Yun-Fen
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2008, 32 (5): 1041-1051.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.05.009
    Abstract3270)   HTML4)    PDF (606KB)(1855)       Save

    Aims Drought effects on terrestrial ecosystems are a key issue in global change research. This study was designed to 1) analyze effects of drought on carbon exchange in a subtropical coniferous plantation; 2) elucidate the sensitivity of carbon exchange to different degree of water deficit and the critical values when the ecosystem converts from carbon sink to source and 3) investigate the main factors that control ecosystem carbon exchange when drought occurs.

    Methods The CEVSA2 model, which incorporated several significant modifications based on the CEVSA process-based ecosystem model and has been tested by using eddy covariance observation in different forest ecosystems, was parameterized by using site-specific ecophysiological measurements. Drought scenarios were designed to analyze effects on annual carbon budget and to elucidate the main control factors.

    Important findings Drought decreases ecosystem production and carbon exchange significantly. Compared with simulation of no drought effect scenario, the droughts in 2003 and 2004 decrease annual net ecosystem production (NEP) by 63% and 47%, respectively. Ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration respond to drought differently, and the more rapid decrease of gross ecosystem production (GEP) than ecosystem respiration (Re) lead to the decrease of NEP when drought occurs. As daily average vapor pressure deficit (VPD) rises above 1.5 kPa, GEP, Re and NEP begin to decrease; When VPD rises above 2.5 kPa and relative soil water content (RSW; soil water content/saturated soil water content) decreases below 40%, the ecosystem converts from a carbon sink to source. Soil water deficit, which is the main factor controlling the ecosystem carbon exchange, accounts for 46% to the decrease of total annual NEP in 2003 and 2004, and atmospheric drought accounts for only 4%.

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    Cited: CSCD(13)
    WANG Yong-Fen, MO Xing-Guo, HAO Yan-Bin, GUO Rui-Ping, HUANG Xiang-Zhong, WANG Yan-Fen
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2008, 32 (5): 1052-1060.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.05.010
    Abstract2767)   HTML6)    PDF (500KB)(1422)       Save

    Aims Evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in arid and semiarid temperate grassland where water availability is a major limiting factor for ecosystem functions. Understanding temporal variation of ET can help explain the surface-atmosphere interaction and its ecological function in grassland ecosystems. Partitioning total ET into its components of evaporation from soil (E) and transpiration from plants (T) is important for understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that control water balance. Our objectives were to simulate the seasonal and interannual variations of ET and its components, analyze the contribution of the components to ETand analyze influencing factors.

    Methods We used flux data derived from eddy covariance technology over Inner Mongolia steppe (43°32′ N, 116°40′ E), measuredLAIand MODIS data from 2003 to 2005 and parameterized VIP (Vegetation interface processes) model to simulate ET of the grassland. The results were validated using half-hourly latent heat fluxes (LE) and net radiation (Rn) estimated from eddy covariance measurements.

    Important findings VIP model can effectively simulate latent heat fluxes of the grassland (R2=0.80). In 2003 and 2004, precipitation (P) was near average and annual ET was 337 and 338 mm, respectively, which were greater than P. In the drier year of 2005, annual ET was 223 mm, which was higher than P. On average, E andT made relatively equivalent contributions to ET. About 83% of annual EToccurred during the growing season. Ewas the primary component of ET before June and was exceeded by Tafter that. The monthly totals of both ET and Treached maxima in July and August. Total ETduring July and August accounted for 43% of the annual amount. ETwas strongly correlated with LAI and moderately correlated with P. E changed little during the growing season, and the difference in ET was accounted for T.

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    Cited: CSCD(16)
    Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration during growing season in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)
    JIN Wan-Yu,LI Ming,HE Yang-Hui,DU Zheng-Gang,SHAO Jun-Jiong,ZHANG Guo-Dong,ZHOU Ling-Yan,ZHOU Xu-Hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2015, 39 (3): 249-257.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0024
    Abstract1471)   HTML91)    PDF (512KB)(1927)       Save

    Our objective was to explore the effects of different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity during growing season in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in East China.


    Three levels of N fertilization, N1 (15 g·m-2·a-1), N2 (30 g·m-2·a-1), and N3 (45 g·m-2·a-1), and the control group (CK) were set up in winter wheat fields. The LI-8100 Automated Soil CO2 Flux System was used to measure soil respiration rate during the growing season (December 2013 to May 2014) of winter wheat.

    <i>Important findings</i>

    During the growing season of winter wheat, mean soil respiration rates of N1, N2 and N3 treatments were 5.29, 6.17 and 6.75 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively, which were 7.8%, 23.6% and 37.8% greater than that of the CK (4.90 μmol·m-2·s-1). Compared to CK, the N1, N2, and N3 treatments increased the aboveground biomass by 39.9%, 104.4%, and 200.2%, respectively, and the increases were significantly correlated with total soil respiration during the growing season. Soil respiration increased exponentially with soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm, which explained 65%-75% of the variation (p < 0.05). The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) calculated based an exponential equation was between 2.09 and 2.32. These results suggested that nitrogen fertilization promoted plant growth, significantly increased biomass of winter wheat, and stimulated the soil respiration.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Review of response mechanism of soil respiration to rainfall
    WANG Yi-Dong, WANG Hui-Min, MA Ze-Qing, LI Qing-Kang, SHI Lei-Lei, XU Fei
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2010, 34 (5): 601-610.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.05.014
    Abstract2500)   HTML4)    PDF (386KB)(2472)       Save

    Soil respiration is an important issue in research on regional carbon budget and global change. Rainfall, which acts as an important disturbance to soil respiration, leads to large uncertainties in estimating carbon exchange between soil and the atmosphere, especially in arid and semiarid regions. Although significant progress on the response of soil respiration to rainfall has been made, considerable controversies on its mechanism still exist. There are two different mechanisms to interpret the “Birch effect”, which is characterized by a strong soil CO2 emission soon after a rainfall event: “the substrate supply change mechanism” and “microbial stress mechanism”. We review progress in the study of the response of soil respiration to rainfall and summarize the responses of different components of soil respiration to the changes induced by rainfall, including physical replacement and blockage, substrate supply change, activity change of root system and microbes and changes in the structure and function of the microbial community. We also point out four important aspects to be considered in the future: 1) evaluating the function of “substrate supply change mechanism” and “microbial stress mechanism” to the “Birch effect”, 2) quantifying the response of soil respiration to rainfall based on different components, 3) modeling and estimating the response of soil respiration to rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, and 4) evaluating the possible effects of N and H+ from rainfall on soil respiration.

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    Cited: CSCD(50)
    SUN Xiao-Xin, MU Chang-Cheng, SHI Lan-Ying, CHENG Wei, LIU Xia, WU Yun-Xia, FENG Deng-Jun
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2009, 33 (3): 535-545.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.03.012
    Abstract2505)   HTML4)    PDF (1503KB)(1915)       Save

    Aims Our major objectives were to quantify methane fluxes and variations during growing season and understand key factors controlling methane fluxes in five natural forested swamps.

    Methods We measured methane fluxes from natural forested swamps in Xiaoxing’an Mountains from early June to late October 2007, using the static opaque chamber and gas chromatography technique.

    Important findings We observed large seasonal variations in methane fluxes in Alnus sibirica swamp, Larix gmelinii-moss swamp and Larix gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp, but smaller variations in Betula platyphylla swamp and Larix gmelinii-Carex schmidtii swamp. Episodic flux was detected in Larix gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp, which greatly influenced methane fluxes during the growing season. Alnus sibirica swamp, Larix gmelinii-moss swamp and Larix gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp were sources of atmospheric methane, but Betula platyphylla swamp and Larix gmelinii-Carex schmidtii swamp were sinks, and the average methane emission rates during the growing season were (56.08 ± 200.38), (15.34 ± 14.89), (0.64 ± 0.88), (-0.88 ± 1.76) and (-0.94 ± 3.00 ) mg·m-2·d-1, respectively. Average methane emission rates were higher with higher water table among the forested swamps, except for Larix gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp. There was a critical point of atmospheric methane source or sink when the water table was at -34.5 ~ -30.8 cm; forested swamps with average water table below this value were atmospheric methane sinks. Effects of temperature on methane fluxes were complex, as temperature may show positive or negative and significant or non-significant correlations. Aboveground biomass of trees may be the best indicator of methane emissions from these forested swamps, because there were strong negative correlations between them.

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    Cited: CSCD(22)
    ZHANG Mi, YU Gui-Rui, ZHANG Lei-Ming, SUN Xiao-Min, WEN Xue-Fa, HAN Shi-Jie
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2009, 33 (2): 270-282.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.02.004
    Abstract2518)   HTML4)    PDF (809KB)(1542)       Save

    Aims Solar radiation can affect net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide of forests, because cloud cover alters solar radiation, which in turn alters other environmental factors such as temperature and vapor pressure deficit. Our objective was to analyze the effects of these changes on NEE of broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountain.

    Methods Our analysis was based on 30-min flux data and routine meteorology data for mid-growing season (June to August) for 2003-2006.

    Important findings Cloud cover significantly increased NEE. The light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate was enhanced 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% on cloudy days compared with clear days in the four years of study. Relative irradiance and clearness index (kt) were important in quantifying the effects of cloud cover, cloud shape and cloud thickness on solar radiation. When ktwas about 0.5, NEE reached its maximum. When the relative irradiance was over the critical relative irradiance of 37%, NEE was enhanced; maximum NEE occurred at about 75%. Enhancement ofNEE was ascribed to increased canopy assimilation and decreased above-ground respiration, which resulted from increased diffuse radiation and decreased air temperature and vapor pressure deficit with increased cloudiness.

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    Cited: CSCD(20)
    Effects of grassland-use on soil respiration and litter decomposition
    WANG Yi-Hui,GONG Ji-Rui,LIU Min,HUANG Yong-Mei,YAN Xin,ZHANG Zi-Yu,XU Sha,LUO Qin-Pu
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2015, 39 (3): 239-248.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0023
    Abstract1619)   HTML49)    PDF (427KB)(1641)       Save

    Land use change affects ecosystem carbon dynamics by changing the plant community structure and soil micro-environment in grassland ecosystems. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of land use on soil respiration and litter decomposition in the temperate grasslands of Nei Mongol and to identify the effects of litter quantity, quality and decomposition on soil respiration during growing season.


    We measured soil respiration during growing season in 2011 and 2012 under three land use types, i.e. grazing, mowing, and grazing exclusion, by using an automatic infrared gas analyzer (LI-8100) that was connected to a multiplexer system (LI-8150). Quadrat surveys and litter bags were utilized to measure litter production and decomposition. Several chemical indicators of litter quality were measured to calculate the litter decay rates. All data were analyzed with ANOVA and Pearson correlation procedures of SPSS.

    <i>Important findings</i>

    Soil respiration and litter decomposition differed greatly among the three land-use types. In the drought year, the total soil respiration at the grazing site was 1.5 times greater than at the mowing site and 1.29 times greater than at the grazing-exclusion site. However, in the wet year, the total soil respiration at the mowing site reached 309 g C∙m-2∙a-1 and was greater than at both the grazing site and the grazing-exclusion site. Precipitation increased soil respiration and litter decomposition, indicating that soil water availability was a primary constraint on plant growth and ecosystem C processes. Also, the responses of soil respiration and litter composition to rainfall differed among the land-use types. Further analysis showed that the litter C:N decreased and the litter N content and lignin:N increased after 2-years of decomposition. In addition, soil respiration was significantly correlated to litter production (r = 0.78, p < 0.01), decay rates, C:N (r = -0.84, p < 0.01), and lignin:N (r = 0.62, p < 0.05).

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    Cited: CSCD(16)
    Optimization and evaluation of vegetation photosynthesis and respiration model using the measurements collected from the forest site of subtropical coniferous-evergreen
    LIU Cheng,HUANG Jian-Ping,DIAO Yi-Wei,WEN Xue-Fa,XIAO Wei,ZHANG Mi,LEE Xu-Hui,LIU Shou-Dong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2015, 39 (4): 388-397.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0038
    Abstract1057)   HTML92)    PDF (519KB)(1899)       Save

    Determination of carbon cycling model parameters is critical to simulate the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). The objectives of this study were to determine the parameters of vegetation photosynthesis and respiration model (VPRM) and improve the calculation of NEE to benefit regional modeling of CO2.


    Two schemes are examined in optimization of the parameters in VPRM. Two years CO2 flux and meteorological observational data in 2010-2011 at the Qianyanzhou (QYZ) eddy tower site are used to determine the parameters in VPRM and another full year flux observational data in 2012 are used to evaluate the model performance. Several statistics metrics are calculated to evaluate the model performance on NEE simulations.

    <i>Important findings</i>

    The results indicate, traditional method with Michaelis-Menten equation is not suitable to determine the parameters of VPRM, whereas the method with parameters retrieved from the VPRM calculation equation provides much more reasonable results. The parameter of maximum light use efficiency (λ) is critical for the VPRM calculation of NEE. Our result is larger than the typical value of C3 plant (1/6), but consistent with the other studies. Using the optimized parameters, VPRM is able to capture NEE variations for different seasons. The statistics calculation with one-year NEE simulation shows that, the mean bias is -0.86 μmol·m-2·s-1 and correlation coefficient is 0.72. Overall, the VPRM performs much better in growing season than the non-growing season when the peak value of NEE is underestimated by 52%. The VPRM simulated NEE shows better agreement with observations on sunny days than rainy or cloudy days.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Methane Fluxes from Mangrove Communities at Dongzhai Harbour, Hainan
    LU Chang-Yi, YE Yong, WONG Yuk-Shan, TAM N. F. Y.
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2000, 24 (1): 87-90.  
    Abstract2239)      PDF (364KB)(1119)       Save

    Using a static chamber technique, methane fluxes from sediments of five mangrove communities at four sites were studied. An average value of 0.81mg·m-2·d-1 was observed. Using polyethylene bags, methane fluxes through leaves of six mangrove species were also studied. It indicates that mangrove leaves generally absorbed atmospheric methane as an overall effect. Diurnal variations of methane fluxes from sediments of Bruguiera sexangula community at Changning site were related to tidal conditions in the forest while flat variations of methane fluxes from sediments of this community were related to soil water contents. There were two different seasonal patterns of methane flux from soils in the five mangrove communities.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (1): 172-172.  
    Abstract462)   HTML3)    PDF (54KB)(105)       Save
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    Environmental controls over energy, water and carbon fluxes in a plantation in Northern China
    TAN Li-Ping,LIU Su-Xia,MO Xing-Guo,YANG Li-Hu,LIN Zhong-Hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2015, 39 (8): 773-784.   DOI: 10.17521/ cjpe.2015.0074
    Abstract1005)   HTML69)    PDF (681KB)(1707)       Save

    Aims Our objective was to examine the underline mechanisms on the driving factors of eco-hydrological processes and identify the limiting factors through both path analysis and piecewise regression. Methods The eddy covariance and meteorological data of a plantation in Chongling watershed in Northern China over the period from August 2012 to August 2013 were used for analyzing the relationships between flux indices and environmental factors. The flux indices include sensible heat, latent heat, net ecosystem production, gross ecosystem production, and ecosystem respiration, and the environmental factors include soil water content, vapor pressure deficit, air temperature, soil temperature, net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation. The direct and indirect effects of dominant and secondary factors were determined through the path analysis, and the control of secondary factors on dominant factors were analyzed using the piecewise regression. Important findings We found that the primary factor affecting sensible heat and water use efficiency was vapor pressure deficit, while latent heat and carbon fluxes were mainly controlled by radiation and temperature respectively. There also appeared significant influences from secondary variables on those fluxes. The correlations between latent heat and net radiation, ecosystem respiration and soil temperature, and water use efficiency and vapor pressure deficit were all strong when soil water content was between 0.20 m3·m-3 and 0.35 m3·m-3. The correlations between ecosystem production (both gross and net) and photosynthetically active radiation was strong when vapor pressure deficit was ≤1.0 kPa.

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    Cited: CSCD(17)
    MA Yu-E, XIANG Wen-Hua, LEI Pi-Feng
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (3): 403-412.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0049
    Abstract2848)   HTML11)    PDF (416KB)(1722)       Save

    Stem respiration is an important part of the annual carbon balance of forest ecosystems and consumes ca. 11%-33% of total net daytime carbon assimilation. Because of difficulties in measurement, little attention was paid to stem respiration studies in the past. However, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, studies of stem respiration have become popular. Several methods were applied in earlier studies, including gas exchange measurements and closed method. An open flow system is employed in recent studies. Results from recent research show that the diurnal pattern of stem respiration is bimodal with a midday depression and that rates are the greatest in the growing season. Controlling factors include meteorological factors (e.g., stem temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity) and biological factors (tree species, tree age, diameter at breast height, sapwood size and nitrogen content in stem). Latitude, altitude and topographic factors indirectly influence respiration rates through meteorological or biological factors, in particular stem temperature. Stem respiration rate is positively correlated with stem temperature. The mechanism of stem respiration and its controlling factors will continue to be subjects of future research. Integration of meteorological and biological factors into models of stem respiration will provide insight into contribution of stem respiration to the carbon balance of forest ecosystems, role of forest ecosystems in reducing CO2 concentration elevation in the atmosphere, response of forest ecosystems to global changes, and development of carbon cycle models of forest ecosystems. These issues and measurement techniques remain challenging and fruitful areas for future research.

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    Cited: CSCD(13)
    WEN Xue-Fa, SUN Xiao-Min, LIU Yun-Fen, LI Xiao-Bo
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (3): 380-385.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0046
    Abstract2765)   HTML4)    PDF (392KB)(1551)       Save

    Aims Soil CO2 flux is driven primarily by the CO2 diffusion gradient across the soil surface. Ideally, the soil CO2 flux measurement should be made without affecting the diffusion gradient across the soil surface. With the closed chamber system, the soil CO2 diffusion rate (∂c/∂t) is required to estimate the soil CO2 flux. To obtain the ∂c/∂t, the chamber CO2 concentration must be allowed to rise. Consequently, the ∂c/∂t will be affected by the CO2 diffusion gradient across the soil surface because of the decreased CO2 diffusion gradient in the soil chamber. Additionally, the ∂c/∂t will also be affected by the diurnal variation of the CO2 concentration across the soil surface. Our objective was to compare linear and exponential fitting methods to estimate ∂c/∂t.
    Methods Currently, the ∂c/∂t is commonly estimated using linear fitting regression. Instead of using the linear fitting method, an exponential fitting method is used to fit the time series of chamber CO2 concentration adopted in the LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system.
    Important findings The ∂c/∂t estimated from the linear slopes was consistently underestimated as compared to that from exponential initial slopes. Nighttime ∂c/∂t was significantly negatively correlated with soil surface CO2 concentration, suggesting that the decreased CO2 diffusion gradient across the soil surface strongly influences the ∂c/∂t. For the closed-chamber method, linear curve fitting significantly underestimated the ∂c/∂t rate during the nighttime. These results demonstrated the importance of estimating the ∂c/∂t at ambient soil surface CO2 concentration. The response of the ∂c/∂t to air temperature exhibited significant asymmetry characteristic, showing that it is a better way for exponential fitting to make long-term and continuous soil CO2 flux measurement to elucidate the magnitudes and processes of soil CO2 flux in the typical terrestrial ecosystem.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    ZHAO Shuang_Ju, ZHANG Yi_Ping, YU Gui_Rui, SONG Qing_Hai, SUN Xiao_Min
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2006, 30 (2): 295-301.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2006.0039
    Abstract3180)   HTML2)    PDF (700KB)(1035)       Save

    Tropical forests play an important role in altering the carbon budgets of terrestrial ecosystems. We examined patterns of diurnal and seasonal net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in a tropical seasonal rainforest of Xishuangbanna on clear days between November 2003 and October 2004. We found that the diurnal dynamics of NEE showed a single_peaked curve. During daytime throughout the year, NEE increased with solar radiation after sunrise, but fluctuated after sunset. Values of NEE (absolute values) in the foggy_cool and wet seasons were greater than those in the dry_hot season during daytime. During the night, NEE values were dominated by soil temperature and soil water content and were highest in the wet season, followed by those in the dry_hot season and lowest in the foggy_cool season. NEE, water vapor deficit (VPD) and air temperature (Ta) curves all showed pronounced seasonal variation, but photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) did not vary significantly. Maximum photosynthesis rates (Pmax) and dark respiration rates (Re) were greater when VPD≥16 hPa than whenVPD<16 hPa, whereas photon density (α) was the opposite. Re was also greater when Ta≥25 ℃ than whenTa<25 ℃ in the three seasons.α was reduced when Ta≥25 ℃ in the dry_hot and wet seasons. ThePmax increased in the dry_hot season and decreased in the wet season when Ta≥25 ℃. Our data suggested thatPAR is the main factor influencing NEE diurnal dynamics, whereas both VPD and Ta play a major role in regulating NEE seasonal dynamics.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Influence of solar radiation and groundwater table on carbon balance of phreatophytic desert shrub Tamarix
    XU Hao, LI Yan, XIE Jing-Xia, CHENG Lei, ZHAO Yan, LIU Ran
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2010, 34 (4): 375-386.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.04.003
    Abstract3033)   HTML5)    PDF (960KB)(1632)       Save

    Aims The groundwater table has changed and air pollution has been reducing solar radiation on the southern periphery of China’s Gurbantonggut Desert. Our objective was to investigate the response and adaptation of Tamarix ramosissima, a native dominant desert shrub in Central Asia, towards variation in groundwater and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), in terms of ecophysiological activities, morphological characteristics and community carbon/water balances.

    Methods During the growing season from 2005 to 2007, we carried out experiments in the original habitat of T. ramosissima, where the groundwater table fluctuated from 2.9 to 4.5 m. Photosynthesis, transpiration, leaf water potential, water-use efficiency and root distribution were examined to reveal the water-use strategy of the species, and CO2 and H2O fluxes above an undisturbed T. ramosissima ecosystem were measured by eddy covariance method to evaluate net carbon assimilation, water loss and leaf area index (LAI).

    Important findings Physiological activity and community carbon uptake of T. ramosissima did not respond to sustained drought in upper soil or rainfall pulses, and its photosynthetic consistency is achieved by its water-use pattern. Special stomatal behavior and root distribution are two main mechanisms. Tamarix ramosissima tends to maximize its carbon gain at the cost of higher water consumption, attributable to its phreatophytic root system that ensures sufficient groundwater supply and avoids the effects of water deficiency in upper soil. Tamarix ramosissima can adapt to moderate fluctuation of groundwater table, but severe decline will threaten its survival, and hence the overexploitation of groundwater will cause severe degradation of Tamarix-dominated perennial vegetation and disturb the original ecohydrological processes in this arid region. PAR is another important environmental factor positively correlating with community carbon uptake. The LAI indicates that the seasonal pattern in community carbon assimilation represents the combined effects of groundwater table and PAR on the phenological photosynthesis capacity. It shows that the integrated study on different scales is an effective approach to further the understanding of desert shrub adaptive strategies and ecosystem processes under variable environmental conditions.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    YANG Ji-Song, LIU Jing-Shuang, WANG Jin-Da, YU Jun-Bao, SUN Zhi-Gao, LI Xin-Hua
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2006, 30 (3): 432-440.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2006.0058
    Abstract2777)   HTML4)    PDF (400KB)(1365)       Save

    In order to understand more about mechanisms of and factors that influence CH4 and N2O production in wetlands, fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured using static-chamber and gas-chromatography methods in a marsh wetland, located at the Honghe Farm in eastern part of Heilongjiang Province, China (47°35'17.8″ N, 133°37'48.4″ E), from June to September,2003. Three plant communities, Carex pseudocuraica, Carex lasiocarpa and Deyeuxia angustifolia, were selected to measure fluxes of CH4 and N2O to contrast the variance of the emission rates of both greenhouse gases in these different plant zones. Air temperature and soil temperature at 5 cm depth, soil redox potential (0-100 cm), and standing water depth at each site also were measured to determine the main factors that control CH4 and N2O emissions within and among plant zones.

    The wetland was a source of both CH4 and N2O during the growing season and emissions showed conspicuous temporal and spatial variations. Similar temporal variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes were observed in the C. pseudocuraica and C. lasiocarpa sites. Emission rates of CH4 were higher in July and August while emissions of N2O were higher in July and September. However, the highest emissions of CH4 and N2O in the C. angustifolia site occurred about one month earlier than in the C. pseudocuraica and C. lasiocarpa sites. The highest CH4 emissions observed in the wetland were in the C. pseudocuraica site on July 19 with a rate of 696.24 mg·m-2·d-1, and the highest N2O emissions were in the D. angustifolia site on June 12 with a rate of 2.53 mg·m-2·d-1. The average CH4 flux from the C. pseudocuraica site was 273.6 mg·m-2·d-1, the highest among the three sites over the growing season but was not significantly different from 259.2 mg·m-2·d-1 of the C. lasiocarpa site. However, both were significantly higher than the 38.16 mg·m-2·d-1 measured in the D. angustifolia site (p<0.000 1). These results showed that average CH4 fluxes in submerged wetlands were higher than in seasonal wetlands. N2O fluxes from the C. pseudocuraica, C. lasiocarpa and D. angustifolia sites were not significantly different (p=0.967) with an average flux of 0.969, 0.932 and 0.983 mg·m-2·d-1, respectively, suggesting that submerged and seasonal wetlands had similar rates of N2O emissions.

    Air temperature, soil temperature, soil redox potential and standing water depth were important factors influencing emission rates of CH4 and N2O from the wetlands. Relationship analysis showed that CH4 fluxes were correlated weakly with air temperature and soil temperature at 5 cm depth within a site (0.201<r<0.560) but not correlated with standing water depth ((0.100<r<0.176). Strong correlations were found between N2O fluxes and standing water depth (r1=-0.701; r2=-0.528), but no correlation between N2O fluxes and air temperature and soil temperature at 5 cm depth in the C. pseudocuraica and C. lasiocarpa sites (-0.089<r<0.211) was found. However, in theD. angustifolia site, there were no correlations between N2O fluxes and the three factors (r<0.344). These results indicated that temperature was more important in influencing CH4 emissions in the seasonal and submerged wetlands whereas standing water depth was more important in influencing N2O emissions in the submerged wetlands. Furthermore, standing water table was the main control of the difference in CH4 emissions among plant zones. However, there appeared to be similar rates of N2O emissions among plant zones in the wetlands with strongly anaerobic conditions.

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    Cited: CSCD(28)
    LI Yi-Jun, XU Zhen-Zhu, WANG Yun-Long, ZHOU Li, ZHOU Guang-Sheng
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (6): 1132-1144.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0141
    Abstract3066)   HTML8)    PDF (859KB)(1824)       Save

    Aims Agroecosystems are influenced strongly by human activity and climate change. In order to scientifically manage agroecosystems under climate change, it is important to understand water exchange and energy transfer between agroecosystems and the atmosphere. We analyze latent and sensible heat fluxes of a maize agroecosystem as a case study.

    Methods Latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured in a maize agroecosystem using a 3.5 m eddy covariance tower from June 2004 to December 2005 at the Jinzhou maize agricultural ecosystem field observation station (Liaoning Province, China). Meteorological factors were recorded using sensors at 2.3 and 4.1 m using a micrometeorological tower.

    Important findings Diurnal and annual variations of latent heat fluxes and sensible heat fluxes had the same characteristics as net radiation and could be expressed as hyperbola curves. Their peak values appeared at 12∶00-13∶00. The maximum latent heat flux was about 655 w·m-2 (at 13∶00 July 8,2004), and the maximum sensible heat flux was 369 w·m-2 (at 13∶00 May 31,2004). The intensities of latent heat fluxes and sensible heat fluxes had close relationships with environmental factors. Latent heat flux was negatively correlated with atmospheric pressure, and sensible heat flux was positively correlated with air temperature. Fluxes of latent and sensible heat were very sensitive to precipitation. Latent heat flux was greatly affected by the intensity and timing of precipitation, regardless of seasonal and daily changes. Energy of the maize agroecosystem was unbalanced with the loss of about 15.5%, possibly because of lack of knowledge of 0-5 cm soil heat reserve and canopy heat reserve. The energy balance had obvious differences between cloudy and rainy days, with the loss of energy much less on rainy than cloudy days, especially with a surplus of energy on rainy days in August.

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    Cited: CSCD(34)
    MI Na, YU Gui-Rui, WANG Pan-Xing, WEN Xue-Fa, SUN Xiao-Min, ZHANG Lei-Ming, SONG Xia, WANG Shu-Sen
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (6): 1119-1131.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0140
    Abstract2515)   HTML3)    PDF (940KB)(1598)       Save

    Aims Seasonal drought frequently occurs in the mid-subtropical region of China and commonly combines with high temperature. Our objectives were to test the sensitivity of carbon exchange to this seasonal drought and discuss the influence of seasonal drought on carbon assimilation.

    Methods We used flux measurements obtained from eddy covariance technology since October 2002 over a human-planted forest ecosystem at Qianyanzhou (QYZ) (26°44' N, 115°03' E, 110.8 m als.). The EALCO (ecological assimilation of land and climate observations) model is parameterized to simulate the ecosystem carbon exchange process in the human-planted evergreen forest. Simulation results were validated using half-hourly carbon fluxes and daily and annualGPP (gross primary production), NEP (net ecosystem production) and TER (total ecosystem respiration) estimated from eddy covariance measurements.

    Important findings In general, the model can effectively simulate the two years' carbon fluxes among soil-plant-atmosphere on hourly, daily and annual scales. Both simulations and observations showed strong impact of drought on GPP in 2003. Compared with 2004, the annual GPP in 2003 was 12.9% lower according to observations (1 610 vs. 1 865 g C·m-2) and 11.2% lower according to model results (1 637 vs. 1 844 g C·m-2). The diurnal variations of NEP from both observations and simulations during the period of soil water deficit showed asymmetric format, i.e., the peak value of carbon exchange accrued at a certain time in the morning and then decreased with time. Modeling results indicated that water stress has more influence on photosynthesis than TER, which led to the decrease of NEP. Further analysis suggested that deep soil water content controls canopy photosynthesis in sunny days before noon during soil water stress. Afternoon, both high temperature and deep soil water content eliminate the GPP, and their elimination percents are equal. On cloudy days, radiation and deep soil water content primarily determine the photosynthesis, and temperature becomes a generally minor controlling factor.

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    Cited: CSCD(14)
    MU Chang-Cheng, SHI Lan-Ying, SUN Xiao-Xin
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2009, 33 (3): 617-623.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.03.021
    Abstract2362)   HTML2)    PDF (1210KB)(1620)       Save

    Aims Our objectives were to evaluate the CO2, CH4 and N2O budget for exploring the relationship of source or sink of carbon and nitrogen, to understand seasonal variations of CO2, CH4 and N2O and to explore the effects of temperature and moisture on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in a marsh ecosystem over a growing season.

    Methods We analyzed temporal fluxes and factors that influenced CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Carex schmidtii marsh of Xiaoxing’an Mountains from June to October 2007, using a static chamber and gas chromatograph technique.

    Important findings CO2 flux was the highest (99.61%), followed by CH4 (0.39%) and N2O (0.000 7%) in greenhouse gases emission from the marsh. The marsh was a sink of carbon (53.93%) and nitrogen (0.04%). Average CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were 487.89, 1.88 and 0.004 mg·m-2·h-1, respectively, and displayed large seasonal variations. The highest emissions of CO2 and N2O were observed in summer (from June 24 to August 14 and from July 14 to August 14, respectively), and the highest emissions of CH4 were in summer and fall (from August 24 to September 24). The CO2 fluxes were significantly correlated with temperature (p < 0.05) (air temperature and soil temperature at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm), the CH4 fluxes were significantly correlated with air temperature (p < 0.01) and the N2O fluxes were negatively significantly correlated with standing water depth (p < 0.05).

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    FENG Wen-Ting, ZOU Xiao-Ming, SHA Li-Qing, CHEN Jian-Hui, FENG Zhi-Li, LI Jian-Zhou
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2008, 32 (1): 31-39.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.01.004
    Abstract5550)   HTML4)    PDF (398KB)(1675)       Save

    Aims Soil respiration may have distinct dynamic patterns at different temporal scales since it is affected by diverse abiotic and biotic factors. Seasonal variation in soil respiration is largely controlled by abiotic factors such as temperature and soil moisture, whereas the regulation of diurnal variation is likely physiological rhythms of plants. Our objectives were to compare seasonal and diurnal patterns of soil respiration and to evaluate relationships between soil respiration and temperature at annual and diurnal scales.
    Methods We examined seasonal variations of soil respiration using infrared gas analyzers at monthly or bimonthly intervals from April 2004 to March 2005, and diurnal variations in July, September and November 2004 as well as in January, March and May 2005 in a montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Ailao Mountains, China. Soil temperature, air temperature, soil water content and air humidity were measured at the same time. We evaluated Q10 values of soil respiration and correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature.
    Important findings Soil respiration fluctuated with distinct seasonal and diurnal patterns. Soil respiration was higher in the wet season (May through October) than in the dry season (November through April). Diurnal patterns of soil respiration varied among seasons. The mean rate of soil respiration was higher in nighttime than in daytime in July, September, January and March, but lower in November and May. On the whole-year basis, soil respiration correlated strongly with soil temperature and soil water content. However, on a diurnal scale, these regressions were not significant. Q10 values were 4.48, 7.17 and 2.34 for the whole year, dry season and wet season, and their corresponding soil temperature ranges were 5.9-16.6, 5.9-11.0 and 10.3-16.6 ℃, respectively. Our results demonstrate that biotic and abiotic factors have distinct impacts on soil respiration at different temporal scales in the forest. Estimation on daily and annual carbon fluxes based on instantaneous measurements of soil respiration, rather than 24-hour measurements, may cause severe deviation from actual values because of the lack of diurnal correlation between soil respiration and temperature.

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    Cited: CSCD(54)
    SHEN Yan, LIU Yun-Fen
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2005, 29 (2): 202-207.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2005.0026
    Abstract2716)   HTML3)    PDF (558KB)(1096)       Save

    Micrometeorological measurements depend on knowing the spatial resolution of the heterogeneous surface, defined as the source area. Based on 2002-2003 flux data at the Mid-Subtropical forest area (Qianyanzhou Station), the flux source area was examined using the FSAM analytical model. Evidence suggested that the source area changed with measurement height, time and atmospheric stability, i.e., under the same conditions, a higher measurement and more stable atmospheric layer created a larger flux source area and farther minimum horizontal distance (a) away from the tower. Seasonal variation of wind direction influenced the distribution direction of the area. A higher measurement height and more stable atmospheric layer caused a stronger pertinence of d/Z 0 and S v/u *, which was independent of wind direction. Because of the big fetch, the measurements were representative of the specific characteristics of the instrument location, i.e., the surface of the underlying forest. Moreover, plotting the wind direction and flux data (including the CO 2 flux, the sensible heat flux and the latent heat flux) on a synchronous basis indicated that when the Z/L data satisfy the model requirements, the flux data almost converge at the same wind direction. The results were obtained under conditions of horizontally homogeneous turbulence, which meets the basic need of the model. In Qianyanzhou Station, the FSAM model can only simulate the flux source area under conditions of day-and-night stable atmospheric layer and inactive turbulence. Future work needs to study the turbulent characteristics within and above the forest and improve the model so that it can be applied more widely in the station.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Diurnal and Seasonal Variation in Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Meadow Steppe of Inner Mongolia
    WANG Yan-Fen, MA Xiu-Zhi, JI Bao-Ming, DU Rui, CHEN Zuo-Zhong, WANG Geng-Chen, WANG Yue-Si, WAN Xiao-Wei
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2003, 27 (6): 792-797.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2003.0113
    Abstract2551)      PDF (538KB)(1366)       Save

    Temperate and tropical oxic soils usually exhibit low levels of atmospheric CH4 oxidation, which are estimated to consume about 10% of the atmospheric CH4. It has been reported that the semi-arid grasslands represent a significant global sink for CH4 and

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    Cited: CSCD(21)
    ZHANG Wen-Li, CHEN Shi-Ping, MIAO Hai-Xia, LIN Guang-Hui
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2008, 32 (6): 1301-1311.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.06.011
    Abstract2667)   HTML4)    PDF (657KB)(1226)       Save

    Aims In light of increasing interest in understanding carbon fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems under changing climate and escalating human influences, our study examined the dependence of carbon fluxes on abiotic and biotic factors and explored the effects of conversion of grassland to cropland on ecosystem C fluxes.

    Methods Our study was carried out in Duolun (42o02′ N, 116o17′ E; 1 350 m asl), a semiarid agriculture-pasture transition region in southeastern Inner Mongolia, China. We used the chamber method during the growing season.

    Important findings There was no difference in net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) between wheat field and steppe at the beginning of the growing season. NEE of wheat field became higher than that of steppe in late June. No differences were found between the two ecosystems from mid-July to August 1st. NEE of wheat field became significantly lower than that of steppe starting in mid-August. During the growing season, the maximum of NEE in steppe was -11.26 µmol CO 2·m-2·s-1, while that in wheat field was -12.29 µmol CO 2·m-2·s-1. Mean NEE in steppe (-5.33 µmol CO 2·m-2·s-1) was a little lower than that in wheat field (-7.66 µmol CO 2·m-2·s-1). Leaf area index (LAI) was the main factor controlling NEE of the two ecosystems. Poor soil nutrient levels also might limit NEE in these ecosystems. Because of characteristics of wheat, the sensitivity of NEE response to LAIwas lower in wheat field than steppe in the middle and late growing season. Lower soil volume water content (10 cm depth) in wheat field limited total ecosystem respiration (TER) and decreased the sensitivity of TER to temperature.

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    Cited: CSCD(18)
    ZHANG Li-Hua, CHEN Ya-Ning, ZHAO Rui-Feng, LI Wei-Hong
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2009, 33 (5): 936-949.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.05.013
    Abstract2543)   HTML2)    PDF (1336KB)(1531)       Save

    Aims Our objective was to determine the impact of temperature and soil water content on soil respiration in Haloxylon ammodendron, Anabasis aphylla and Halostachys caspica desert communities.
    Methods We measured soil respiration in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons using an automated CO2 efflux system (Li-Cor 8100). Air temperature (at 50 cm in height) and soil temperature (every 5 cm from 0 to 50 cm depth) were monitored at three points adjacent to the chamber using a digital thermometer at each site. Gravimetric soil moisture at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths at three points was measured using the oven-drying method at 105 °C for 48 h. Water was added for artificial precipitation using plastic watering cans.
    Important findings Soil respiration showed an asymmetric daytime pattern, with the minimum at 8:00 and the maximum at 12:00-14:00. The seasonal variation of soil respiration was characterized by a minimum in October and a maximum in June or July, which generally followed that of air temperature. The mean soil respiration rate in the growing season was 0.76, 0.52 and 0.46 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 in Haloxylon ammodendron, Anabasis aphylla and Halostachys caspica communities, respectively. Air temperature explained >35%, 51% and 65% of seasonal variations of soil respiration in Haloxylon ammodendron, Anabasis aphylla and Halostachys caspica communities, respectively. Q10 values increased in Haloxylon ammodendron (1.35), Anabasis aphylla (1.41) and Halostachys caspica (1.52) communities, and R10 decreased 0.45, 0.30 and 0.22 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 in each site, respectively. Significant power and quadratic relationships existed between normalized soil respiration and soil water content in the Haloxylon ammodendron and Anabasis aphylla communities, but not in the Halostachys caspica community. Two-dimensional equations based on temperature and soil water content explained most of temporal variations of soil respiration: 71%-93% in Haloxylon ammodendron, 79%-82% in Anabasis aphylla and 70%-80% in Halostachys caspica. Following artificial precipitation, the rate of soil respiration decreased, increased and then quickly decreased again, a pattern consistent with changes in soil temperature.

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    Cited: CSCD(30)
    ZHAO Liang, GU Song, ZHOU Hua-Kun, XU Shi-Xiao, ZHAO Xin-Quan, LI Ying-Nian
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2008, 32 (3): 544-554.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.03.003
    Abstract2666)   HTML11)    PDF (641KB)(1258)       Save

    Aims It is important to the study of the carbon cycle and ecological issues to understand seasonal variation in CO2 flux and the influence of environmental factors on the artificial grassland in the source region of the three rivers on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Methods We utilized the eddy covariance method to observe net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and biological and environmental factors and their variation at the Elymus nutans artificial grassland from September 1, 2005 to August 31, 2006.

    Important findings The daily maximum uptake of CO2 was 2.38 g C·m-2·d-1 on July 30. The ratio of daily uptake and emission in August were observed, -6.82 and 2.95 μmol CO 2·m-2·s-1, respectively. In the growing seasons, daily NEE was dominated by the variation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). At the same time, daily NEE combined with leaf area and community diversity to control photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum photosynthetic rate was 2.46-10.39 μmol CO 2·m-2·s-1, and the apparent quantum yield (denoting the maximum efficiency of light utilization in photosynthesis) was 0.013-0.070 μmol CO 2·μmol-1 PAR. The influence of temperature, Q10 (1.8) in the growing season was less than in the non-growing season. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly dominated by temperature and leaf area. Carbon absorption was not dominated by the larger temperature difference of the day and night in the growing season. Our study proved that the artificial grassland ecosystem was a carbon sink with a carbon absorption of -49.35 g C·m-2·a-1. Our study also proved that the source and sink function of carbon was influenced by the amount, intensity and seasonal allocation of annual precipitation, as well as by plant community diversity.

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    The Carbon Sink: the Role of the middle and High Latitudes Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere
    FANG Jin-Yun, PIAO Shi-Long, ZHAO Shu-Qing
    Chin J Plan Ecolo    2001, 25 (5): 594-602.  
    Abstract2655)      PDF (775KB)(2326)       Save
    About 7.0 Pg (1 Pg=109 t) of carbon is annually released to the atmosphere from fossil fuel combustion and the buring and clearance of tropical forests, of which 3-3.4 PgC of the carbon adds to the atmospheric carbon pool and about 2.0 PgC is uptaken by oceans. The terrestrial biosphere is considered to hold its carbon dynamic in balance with approximately equal rates of sequestration and emission. Therefore 1.6 to 2.0 PgC per year is unattributed and this is known as the ’missing sink’. Many studies, including the monitoring of atmospheric components, analysis of forest inventories, CO2 flux measurements and modeling simulations, have suggested that the mid- and high latitude terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere are functioning as a significant carbon sink, though with a large uncertainty and considerablly spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Global warming, CO2 fertilization, increasing nitrogen and phosphorus deposition, and the expansion and re-growth of forests are major factors impacting the size and distribution of these carbon sinks. Study on the role of soils in the carbon cycles-as well as long-term monitoring and improvement of existing carbon model simulations is a critical step required to reduce uncertainty in the size of this sink.
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    Analysis of soil respiration and components in Castanopsis carlesiiand Cunninghamia lanceolataplantations
    WU Jun-Jun, YANG Zhi-Jie, LIU Xiao-Fei, XIONG De-Cheng, LIN Wei-Sheng, CHEN Chao-Qi, WANG Xiao-Hong
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2014, 38 (1): 45-53.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00005
    Abstract1054)   HTML8)    PDF (329KB)(1853)       Save

    Aims Partitioning the soil respiration is an important step in understanding ecosystem-level carbon cycling. In addition, the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration may respond differently to climate change. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration and its components in Castanopsis carlesii and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations, to determine the relative contributions of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to soil respiration, and to explore how different forest types would affect soil respiration and its components.
    Methods The study site is located in the Nature Reserve of Castanopsis kawakamii, Fujian Province, eastern China. By using a field setup through trenching method and LI-8100 open soil carbon flux system, the dynamics of soil respiration were measured from August 2012 through July 2013. Soil temperature at 5 cm depth and water content of the 0-12 cm soil layer were measured concurrently with the measurements of soil respiration. Relationships of soil respiration with soil temperature and water content were determined by fitting both an exponential model and a two-factor model.
    Important findings Soil respiration and its components showed significant correlations with soil temperature. There were significant monthly changes, in the form of a single-peaked curve, in soil respiration and its components in the two forest types. Soil temperature explained 70.3%, 73.4%, and 58.2% of the monthly variations in soil respiration, autotrophic respiration, and heterotrophic respiration, respectively, in the Castanopsis carlesii plantation; whilst it explained 77.9%, 65.7%, and 79.2% of the monthly variations in the three variables in the Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation. There was no significant relationship between soil respiration and soil water content in both forest types. The annual estimates of CO2 efflux through autotrophic respiration in the two types forests were 4.00 and 2.18 t C·hm-2·a-1, respectively, accounting for 32.5% and 24.1% of soil respiration. The annual estimates of CO2 efflux through heterotrophic respiration were 8.32 and 6.88 t C·hm-2·a-1, respectively, accounting for 67.5% and 75.9% of soil respiration. The annual estimates of CO2 efflux through soil respiration and partitioning of the components were all higher in the Castanopsis carlesii plantation than in theCunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

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    Cited: CSCD(24)
    Characteristics of water and carbon fluxes during growing season in three typical arid ecosystems in central Asia
    WANG Yu-Hui, JING Chang-Qing, BAI Jie, LI Long-Hui, CHEN Xi, LUO Ge-Ping
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2014, 38 (8): 795-808.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00075
    Abstract1079)   HTML18)    PDF (149536KB)(1633)       Save

    Aims The arid region in central Asia, in the hinterland of Eurasia, is characterized by low precipitation and extremely fragile ecological environment. Study of energy and matter exchange between atmosphere and the land surface is essential to understanding the balance of water resources and ecosystem functioning in arid region. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of water and carbon fluxes and responses to environmental factors in a typical ecosystem of central Asia.
    Methods Eddy covariance measurements were made at three sites representing desert and grassland ecosystems in the central Asia. We analyzed the responses of evaporation and gross primary productivity to selective environmental factors using the enveloped curve fitting method, which determines the response of a dependent variable to a given independent factor while fixing other factors at their best values.
    Important findings During growing season from April to October, the diurnal variations of energy, water vapor, net ecosystem CO2 exchange and gross primary productivity showed patterns of “single peak curve” at the three sites; whereas ecosystem respiration in the desert ecosystem kept relatively stable. The ratio of latent heat flux to net solar radiation in the grassland ecosystem (76.3%) was greater than in the desert ecosystem (32.7%). The grassland ecosystem occurred as a strong carbon sink, whilst the desert ecosystem showed weak carbon fixation. Evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity in the two types of ecosystems were susceptible to changes in precipitation, net solar radiation or photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit and air temperature.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Effects of experimental warming on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes of biological soil crust and soil system in a desert region
    XU Bing-Xin, HU Yi-Gang, ZHANG Zhi-Shan, CHEN Yong-Le, ZHANG Peng, LI Gang
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2014, 38 (8): 809-820.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00076
    Abstract1175)   HTML113)    PDF (14083KB)(1590)       Save

    Aims The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of experimental warming on the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and soil system, and to determine the relationships of the greenhouse gas fluxes with soil temperature and soil moisture.
    Methods We used open top chamber to imitate climate warming. Intact soil columns covered with three types of biological soil crusts, including moss, algae and mixed crusts of moss and algae, were collected at the southeast fringe of the Tengger Desert. The fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O under warming and non-warming treatments were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography method during the period from July 2012 to June 2013.
    Important findings Warming and BSCs types had no significant effects on the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The CO2 and CH4 fluxes were significantly affected by sampling date as well as interactions between crust type and sampling date and among warming treatment, crust type and sampling date. An interaction between warming treatment and sampling date also significantly affected the CH4 flux. However, no difference was found in the annual CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and global warming potentials (GWP) in the three BSC types between the warming and non-warming treatments. CO2 flux had a significant and positive exponential correlation with soil temperature at 5 cm depth and a significant and negative linear correlation with soil moisture at 10 cm depth. The CH4 fluxes of moss and mixed crusts were significantly and negatively correlated with both soil temperature at 5 cm depth and soil moisture at 10 cm depth. No relationship was found between the N2O flux and soil temperature, while the N2O flux of moss crust was significantly and negatively correlated with soil moisture at 10 cm depth. Differences in CO2 and CH4 fluxes of moss crust between the warming and non-warming treatments were significantly and negatively correlated with the difference of soil temperature at 5 cm depth between the two treatments; whereas the difference in N2O flux of algae crust was marginally and positively correlated (p = 0.051) with the difference in soil temperature. All results mentioned above suggest that the fluxes of greenhouse gases would not experience a significant change for the BSCs-soil system under global warming, meaning that the feedback of greenhouse gases in the desert ecosystem to climate warming would not be large in the future.

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    Cited: CSCD(21)
    Spatio-temporal variations of CO2 concentration within the canopy in a temperate deciduous forest, Northeast China
    JIAO Zhen, WANG Chuan-Kuan, WANG Xing-Chang
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2011, 35 (5): 512-522.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00512
    Abstract2367)   HTML6)    PDF (10281KB)(1683)       Save

    Aims Although temperate broadleaved deciduous forest accounts for two-thirds of the forest area in northeastern China, its spatio-temporal variations of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) have not been quantified. Our objectives were to quantify diurnal and seasonal variations and vertical gradients of [CO2] and explore controlling factors.

    Methods A [CO2] flux tower with an 8-level [CO2] profile system (at 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 20.0, 28.0 and 36.0 m) was installed at the Maoershan Forest Ecosystem Research Station in Heilongjiang Province (45°24′ N, 127°40′ E) in 2007. [CO2] at each level was measured with a LI-COR LI-840 infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) by drawing it from each level with a sample pump through tubes of equal length. The IRGA was controlled and data were collected with a datalogger. Automatic calibration was done for the IRGA once a day. A Vaisala GMP343 was installed at 36.0 m to monitor ambient [CO2] for quality control of the [CO2] profile data. We simultaneously measured micrometeorological variables, including wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure, soil temperature and water content.

    Important findings At a daily scale, maximum [CO2] occurred at night or sun rise, while the minimum occurred in the afternoon at all levels. This pattern was predominant in the summer. The diurnal course of the [CO2] was “V”-shaped in winter but “U”-shaped in other seasons. [CO2] decreased with increasing height, particularly on summer nights. During the daytime of summer, daily mean [CO2] within the canopy was substantially lower than the ambient [CO2], suggesting that the vegetation acted as a CO2 sink due to its photosynthesis. Daily mean [CO2] above the canopy peaked in spring and autumn and reached a minimum in summer, while that near the forest floor showed a unimodal seasonal pattern with its maximum in summer. The diurnal dynamics of [CO2] and their vertical gradients during the growing season were jointly controlled by the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and forest carbon metabolism, while those during the dormant season were controlled mainly by ABL. The seasonal dynamics of the [CO2] near the forest floor were determined mainly by soil respiration, while those above the canopy were jointly controlled by canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration.

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    Cited: CSCD(20)
    Modelling the effects of changes in solar radiation on gross primary production in subtropical evergreen needle-leaf plantations
    LI Deng-Qiu, ZHOU Yan-Lian, JU Wei-Min, WANG Hui-Min, LIU Yi-Bo, WU Xiao-Cui
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2014, 38 (3): 219-230.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00019
    Abstract940)   HTML95)    PDF (41302KB)(1669)       Save

    Aims Solar radiation is the energy source of terrestrial ecosystem carbon and water cycles. Observation shows that solar radiation has experienced noticeable variations in recent decades and significantly impacted on plant photosynthesis. Our objective was to investigate the impacts of changes in solar radiation on gross primary production (GPP) at the Qianyanzhou eddy tower site in subtropical forest in China.
    Methods We first established the relationship between diffuse radiation fraction and clearness index based on the observed solar radiation and diffuse radiation data. Then, a two-leaf ecological process model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), was used to simulate the impacts of different changes in solar radiation on shaded GPP, sunlit GPP, and canopy GPP in the typical subtropical evergreen needle-leaf plantations.
    Important findings Results showed that the effects of changes in solar radiation on shaded leaves predominantly determined the changes in the canopy photosynthesis as the shaded leaves contributed 67% to the total GPP. The impacts of changes in solar radiation on GPP varied inter-annually due to variations in the intensity and distribution of solar radiation from year to year. The GPP during 2003-2005 reached maximum when the solar radiation changed by -5.44%, -1.83%, and 6.26% in each year, respectively. Increased solar radiation enhanced the GPP during May and June, but reduced the GPP from July through September. The shaded leaves responded to changes in radiation differently in different seasons, and the sunlit and shaded leaves had different responses in the same season. Consequently, there were patterns of apparent offset in the total GPP and reduced sensitivity to changes in solar radiation on an annual basis. The changes in solar radiation had the smallest impact on GPP when the clearness index was at 0.43.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    CO2 fluxes and their driving factors over alpine meadow grassland ecosystems in the northern shore of Qinghai Lake, China
    ZHANG Fa-Wei, LI Ying-Nian, CAO Guang-Min, LI Feng-Xia, YE Guang-Ji, LIU Ji-Hong, WEI Yong-Lin, ZHAO Xin-Quan
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2012, 36 (3): 187-198.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.00187
    Abstract1948)   HTML7)    PDF (755KB)(1876)       Save

    Aims Meadow grassland is a dominant vegetation type on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, but its mechanisms controlling the exchange of CO2 across a spectrum of time scales and carbon budget remain unclear. Our objective was to investigate the main drivers of ecosystem carbon dynamics and understand the potential response to future climate warming.
    Methods We used the eddy covariance method for continuously measuring net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and environmental factors over meadow grassland on the northern shore of Qinghai Lake from July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011.
    Important findings Diurnal changes of NEE were controlled by photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) during the middle growing season (May to September), and air temperature (Ta) was the determining factor on diurnal NEE during other periods. The maximum daily CO2 uptake and release rate were 11.37 g CO2∙m-2∙d-1 on July 1 and 4.04 g CO2∙m-2∙d-1 on October 21, respectively. Ta was the primary environmental factor related to daily NEE, and the correlation was described by an exponential-linear equation (R 2= 0.54, p < 0.01). A significant asymptotical response of daily NEE with increasing leaf area index (LAI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was observed. The interaction effect of LAI and Ta was significant (p < 0.05), while main effect of EVI versus Ta was more important (p < 0.001). Respiration quotient (Q10) was 2.42 and ecosystem total respiration (Reco) consumed 74% of gross primary production (GPP). The proper magnitude of diurnal temperature range (<14.8 ℃) could be propitious to ecosystem carbon sequestration. The meadow grassland acted as carbon sink and absorbed 271.31 g CO2∙m -2from the atmosphere during the study period.

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    Cited: CSCD(34)
    Temporal and spatial patterns of soil respiration in subtropical forests of eastern China
    ZHOU Wen-Jia, SHI Zhao-Yong, WANG Wei
    Chin J Plant Ecol    2011, 35 (7): 731-740.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00731
    Abstract2458)   HTML1)    PDF (464KB)(1805)       Save

    Aims Soil respiration shows spatio-temporal differences at all scales because it is affected by diverse abiotic and biotic factors. Our objectives were to understand the seasonal dynamics and regional patterns of soil respiration in subtropical forests of eastern China and explore the possible underlying reasons.
    Methods We examined seasonal variations of soil respiration using a LI-8100 Soil Respiration System in 8 subtropical forests, belonging to three regions of eastern China, from August 2009 to October 2010. Soil temperatures at 5 cm depth were measured at the same time. We evaluated apparent Q10 values and annual CO2 efflux from soil to atmosphere at each site using the exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature.
    Important findings Seasonal differences in soil respiration appeared at all sites, ranging from 2.64 to 6.24 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1. Soil respiration was higher in summer and lower in winter, following the seasonal dynamic of soil temperature. Soil temperature can explain 58.3%-90.2% of the variance of soil respiration for the year. Annual Q10 values from different sites ranged from 1.56 to 3.27. Annual soil CO2 efflux ranged from 1 077 to 2 058 g C·m -2·a-1 among all research sites in 2010, a high level of ecosystem CO2 efflux at the global scale.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)