植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (4): 291-304.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0351

所属专题: 生态学研究的技术和方法专辑

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

涡度相关技术及其在陆地生态系统通量研究中的应用

陈世苹1,2,*(),游翠海1,2,胡中民3,陈智4,张雷明4,王秋凤4   

  1. 1中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3华南师范大学地理科学学院, 广州 510631
    4中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-17 接受日期:2020-04-02 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-04-30
  • 通讯作者: 陈世苹 ORCID:0000-0002-1934-2372
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFA0604801);国家自然科学基金(41773084)

Eddy covariance technique and its applications in flux observations of terrestrial ecosystems

CHEN Shi-Ping1,2,*(),YOU Cui-Hai1,2,HU Zhong-Min3,CHEN Zhi4,ZHANG Lei-Ming4,WANG Qiu-Feng4   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    4Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-12-17 Accepted:2020-04-02 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-04-30
  • Contact: CHEN Shi-Ping ORCID:0000-0002-1934-2372
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFA0604801);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41773084)

摘要:

通量观测是定量描述土壤-植被-大气间物质循环和能量交换过程的基础。涡度相关技术作为直接测量植被冠层与大气间能量与物质交换通量的技术手段, 已经逐步发展成为国际通用的通量观测标准方法。随着涡度相关技术在全球碳水循环研究中的广泛应用, 长期连续的通量观测正在为准确评价生态系统碳固持能力、水分和能量平衡状况、生态系统对全球气候变化的反馈作用、区域和全球尺度模型的优化与验证、极端事件对生态系统结构与功能影响等方面的研究提供重要数据支撑和机制理解途径。通过站点尺度通量长期动态观测, 明确了不同气候区和植被类型生态系统碳水通量强度基线及其季节与年际变异特征。通过多站点联网观测, 在区域和全球尺度研究生态系统碳通量空间变异特征, 揭示了区域尺度上温度和降水对生态系统碳通量空间格局的生物地理学控制机制。该文概括地介绍了涡度相关技术的基本原理、假设与系统构成, 总结了涡度通量长期联网观测在陆地生态系统碳水通量研究中的主要应用, 并对通量研究发展前景进行了展望。

关键词: 涡度相关技术, 碳通量, 水通量, 年际动态, 空间格局, 长期通量监测, 联网观测

Abstract:

Carbon (C) and water cycles are the most critical processes in terrestrial ecosystems, which links the materials and energy flows through the pedosphere-biosphere-atmosphere integration. Most attention has been paid to the responses of C and water and their feedbacks to global climate change. Flux observation is the basic pathway to quantify the rate of material and energy exchange across soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. As an only technique can directly measure the carbon, water and energy fluxes between vegetation and atmosphere, eddy covariance (EC) technique has been considered as a standard method for flux observation internationally. With broad applications of EC technique on global C and water cycles, long-term flux observations provide scientific data on assessing ecosystem C sequestration capability, water and energy balance, and ecosystem feedback to climate change; optimizing and validating models on regional and global scales; and understanding responses of ecosystem functions to extreme events. Based on long-term flux observation in individual site, scientists have described the seasonal and inter-annual dynamics, and quantified the baseline rates of ecosystem carbon and water fluxes across different climate and vegetation types. With the development of regional and global flux networks, researchers further understood the spatial patterns of ecosystem carbon and water fluxes and their climatic control mechanisms at regional and global scales. This paper briefly introduces the basic principles, hypothesis and instrument system composition, summarizes the major applications of EC observation on C and water fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems, and finally discusses future directions of EC observation network.

Key words: eddy covariance technique, carbon flux, water flux, inter-annual dynamics, spatial pattern, long-term flux observation, flux network