植物生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 762-773.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0088

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

山西关帝山森林群落物种、谱系和功能多样性海拔格局

秦浩1,2,张殷波3,董刚4,张峰2,*()   

  1. 1山西财经大学统计学院, 太原 030006
    2山西大学黄土高原研究所, 太原 030006
    3山西大学环境与资源学院, 太原 030006
    4山西大学生命科学学院, 太原 030006
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-16 接受日期:2018-09-06 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2020-01-03
  • 通讯作者: 张峰 E-mail:fzhang@sxu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2011FY110300);国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY110300)

Altitudinal patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of forest communities in Mount Guandi, Shanxi, China

QIN Hao1,2,ZHANG Yin-Bo3,DONG Gang4,ZHANG Feng2,*()   

  1. 1School of Statistics, Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, Taiyuan 030006, China
    2Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
    3School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
    4School of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
  • Received:2018-04-16 Accepted:2018-09-06 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2020-01-03
  • Contact: ZHANG Feng E-mail:fzhang@sxu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2011FY110300);Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2015FY110300)

摘要:

探索和揭示生物多样性的空间格局和维持机制是生态学和生物地理学研究的热点内容, 但综合物种、系统进化和功能属性等方面的多样性海拔格局研究很少。该文以关帝山森林群落为研究对象, 综合物种、谱系和功能α和β多样性指数, 旨在初步探讨关帝山森林群落多样性海拔格局及其维持机制。研究结果表明: 随着海拔的升高(1 409-2 150 m), 关帝山森林群落物种丰富度指数(S)、谱系多样性指数(PD)和功能丰富度指数(FRic)整体上表现出上升的趋势, 特别是海拔1 800 m以上区域。随着海拔的升高, 总β多样性(βtotal)和更替(βrepl)上升趋势明显, 而丰富度差异(βrich)则逐渐下降。不同生活型植物的物种、谱系和功能多样性海拔格局差异较大。随着海拔的升高, 草本植物S和物种多样性指数(H′)上升趋势高于木本植物。影响草本植物S分布的主要因素是地形因子, 而影响木本植物S分布的主要因素是历史过程。随着海拔的升高, 木本植物βtotal上升趋势要比草本植物明显。随着海拔的升高, 木本植物βreplβrich分别表现出单峰格局和“U”形格局, 而草本植物βreplβrich则分别表现出单调递增和单调递减的格局。随着环境差异和地理距离的增加, 群落间物种、谱系和功能β多样性显著增加。环境差异(环境过滤)对木本植物的β多样性具有相对较强的作用; 而环境差异(环境过滤)和地理距离(扩散限制)共同作用于草本植物的β多样性。

关键词: 物种多样性, 谱系多样性, 功能多样性, 海拔格局, 森林群落, 关帝山

Abstract:
Aims Understanding the spatial patterns and maintenance mechanisms of biodiversity is one of the central issues in ecology and biogeography. Specifically, altitudinal patterns of biodiversity have been widely explored to represent to mimic the latitudinal patterns. However, previous studies on altitudinal patterns of plant diversity have focused mainly on the taxonomic diversity, with less attention paid to the comprehensive information of taxonomic, phylogenetic evolution and functional traits. In this study, we explored maintenance mechanisms of diversity of forest communities in Mount Guandi, by comparing the altitudinal patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity, based on the systematic investigation of forest communities.
Methods 52 forest plots, each with an area of 30 m × 20 m and divided into six subplots (10 m × 10 m), were investigated along the altitudinal gradient (1 409-2 150 m) in Mount Guandi, Shanxi. Name, diameter at breast height (DBH) and height were identified and measured for each tree stem with DBH ≥3 cm at each plot; name, average height, coverage and basal diameter for each shrub species were identified and measured in two of the six subplots; name, abundance, coverage and average height for each herbaceous species were identified and measured for one quadrat of 1 m × 1 m in each subplot. The indices of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional α and β diversity were then calculated.
Important findings Species richness (S), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional richness (FRic) increased along the altitudinal gradient, especially in altitudes above 1 800 m. Total β diversity (βtotal) and replacement β diversity (βrepl) increased, while the richness difference (βrich) decreased, along the altitudinal gradient. The patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity were significantly different between woody and herbaceous plants. S and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H′) of herbaceous plants increased more obvious along the altitude than those of woody plants. Topographic factors regulated the pattern of the herbaceous plant richness, while historical process regulated the woody plant richness. Along the altitude, βtotal increased more obvious for the woody plants than for the herbaceous plants. βrepl and βrich of woody plant showed a unimodal pattern and U-shaped pattern, while those of herbaceous plants increased or decreased, respectively. Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional β diversity of both woody and herbaceous plants among communities increased with the environmental and geographical distances. Environmental distance had a relatively stronger effects than geographical distance on β diversity of woody plants, while environmental distance and geographical distance jointly influenced β diversity of the herbaceous plants.

Key words: taxonomic diversity, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, altitudinal pattern, forest community, Mount Guandi