植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (1): 44-55.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0258

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

末次盛冰期以来观光木的潜在地理分布变迁

胡菀1,*(),张志勇1,陈陆丹1,彭焱松1,汪旭2   

  1. 1中国科学院庐山植物园, 江西省植物迁地保护与利用重点实验室, 江西九江 332900
    2江西省林业产业发展管理局, 南昌 330006
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-17 修回日期:2019-01-17 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2020-03-26
  • 通讯作者: 胡菀 E-mail:hwan603@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41961009);江西省科研基础条件和能力建设项目(2017ZDD01002);中国科学院科技服务网络计划(KFJ-3W-No1)

Changes in potential geographical distribution of Tsoongiodendron odorum since the Last Glacial Maximum

HU Wan1,*(),ZHANG Zhi-Yong1,CHEN Lu-Dan1,PENG Yan-Song1,WANG Xu2   

  1. 1Lushan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant ex Situ Conservation and Utilization, Jiujiang, Jiangxi 332900, China
    2Forestry Industry Development Administration of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330006, China
  • Received:2018-10-17 Revised:2019-01-17 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2020-03-26
  • Contact: HU Wan E-mail:hwan603@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41961009);Scientific Infrastructure and Capacity Building of Jiangxi Province(2017ZDD01002);Science and Technology Service Network Initiative(KFJ-3W-No1)

摘要:

观光木(Tsoongiodendron odorum)是木兰科的古老残遗物种, 目前正面临严峻的生存威胁, 属于极小种群濒危植物。通过生态位模型(ENM)能够重建观光木地理分布格局的历史变迁, 探究气候变化对该物种分布的影响, 并了解其地理分布与气候需求间的关系, 从而为全球变暖背景下观光木的保护提供理论基础。该文基于96条现代分布记录和8个环境变量, 采用最大熵(MaxEnt)模型模拟观光木在末次盛冰期、全新世中期、现代和未来(2061-2080年, RCP 8.5)的潜在分布区, 利用SDM toolbox分析观光木的地理空间变化, 并综合贡献率、置换重要值和Jackknife检验来评估气候因子的重要性。研究结果表明: (1)观光木的高度适生区在南岭地区, 末次盛冰期时没有大尺度向南退缩, 很可能在山区避难所原地存活; (2)在全新世中期和未来两个增温的气候情境下, 观光木的分布区均表现为缩减, 其中未来分布的减幅更大, 表明气候变暖对观光木的生长有一定的负面影响; (3)总体上看, 观光木各个时期的地理分布范围相对稳定, 说明观光木对气候变化有一定的适应能力, 人为活动或自身繁育问题可能是致濒的重要原因, 并建议对广东和广西群体进行优先保护。

关键词: 观光木, 生态位模型, 地理分布, 末次盛冰期, 气候变化

Abstract:
Aims Tsoongiodendron odorum is an ancient relic species belonging to the family Magnoliaceae, but it is labelled endangered plant with extremely small populations and facing serious threats to its wild survival now. Using Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) to hindcast historical changes in its distribution during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), this study aims to explore the impact of climate change on the distribution of T. odorum, and to evaluate the relationship between species distribution and environmental variables. The results of this study could contribute to the conservation of T. odorum in the context of global warming.
Methods Based on 96 modern geographical distribution records and 8 bioclimatic variables, we simulated the potential distribution of T. odorum during the LGM, Mid-Holocene, present and future (period of 2061-2080 in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate scenario) with MaxEnt model. The changes in species distribution through time were analyzed by SDM toolbox, while the importance of bioclimatic variables was evaluated by percent contribution, permutation importance and Jackknife test.
Important findings (1) The highly suitable region for T. odorum was Nanling region, and this area might be the refuge where T. odorum survived in situ during the LGM because only slightly southward retreat in distribution was detected in this region during the LGM. (2) In the two warming climate scenarios (Mid-Holocene and future), the area of the suitable region was reduced, and the decrease of future distribution is greater than that during the Mid-Holocene, which suggests that warming climate might have a negative impact on the distribution of T. odorum. (3) Overall the stability of distribution range of T. odorum in each period indicates the climate adaptation of this species. Human activity or self-breeding problem was likely the significant cause leading to endangered condition. Guangdong and Guangxi should be regarded as priority conservation areas as shown by our results.

Key words: Tsoongiodendron odorum, ecological niche modelling, geographical distribution, Last Glacial Maximum, climate change