Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (12): 1298-1309.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0012

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of groundwater salinity on the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis and stem sap flow in Tamarix chinensis

Qing-Xian KONG1,2, Jiang-Bao XIA2,*, Zi-Guo ZHAO2, Fan-Zhu QU2   

  1. 1College of Water and Soil Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    2Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Science for Yellow River Delta, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603, China
  • Online:2016-12-30 Published:2016-12-31
  • Contact: Jiang-Bao XIA

Abstract: AimsThe objective of this study was to investigate the change pattern of leaves photosynthesis and stem sap flow of Tamarix chinensisin under different groundwater salinity, which can be served as a theoretical basis and technical reference for cultivation and management of T. chinensis in shallow groundwater table around Yellow River Delta.MethodsThree-year-old T. chinensis, one of the dominated species in Yellow River Delta, was selected. Plants were treated by four different salinity concentrations of groundwater—fresh water (0 g∙L-1), brackish water (3.0 g∙L-1), saline water (8.0 g∙L-1), and salt water (20.0 g∙L-1) under 1.2 m groundwater level. Light response of photosynthesis and the diurnal courses of leaf transpiration rate, stem sap flux velocity and environment factors under different groundwater salinity were determined via LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system and a Dynamax packaged stem sap flow gauge based on stem-heat balance method, respectively.Important findings The result showed that groundwater salinity had a significant impact on photosynthesis efficiency and water consumption capacity of T. chinensis by influencing the soil salt. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximum Pn, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate increased first and then decreased with increasing groundwater salinity, while the water use efficiency (WUE) continuously decreased. The mean Pn under fresh water, brackish water and salt water decreased by 44.1%, 15.1% and 62.6%, respectively, compared with that under saline water (25.90 µmol∙m-2∙s-1). The mean WUE under brackish water, saline water and salt water decreased by 25.0%, 29.2% and 41.7%, respectively, compared with that under fresh water (2.40 µmol∙mmol-1). With the increase of groundwater salinity from brackish water to salt water, light saturation point of T. chinensisdecreased while the light compensation point increased, which lead to the decrease of light ecological amplitude and light use efficiency. Fresh water and brackish water treatment helped T. chinensis to use low or high level light, which could significantly improve the utilization rate of light energy. The decrease in Pn of T. chinensis was mainly due to non-stomatal limitation under treatment from saline water to fresh water, while the decrease in Pn of T. chinensis was due to stomatal limitation from saline water to salt water. With increasing groundwater salinity, stem sap flux velocity of T. chinensis increased firstly and then decreased, reached the maximum value under saline water. The mean stem sap flux velocity under fresh water, brackish water and salt water decreased by 61.8%, 13.1% and 41.9%, respectively, compared with that under saline water (16.96 g·h-1). Tamarix chinensis had higher photosynthetic productivity under saline water treatment, and could attained high WUE under severe water deprivation by transpiration, which was suitable for the growth of T. chinensis.

Key words: photosynthetic efficiency, sap flow, water consumption, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, salt stress, groundwater, Yellow River Delta

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram and photo of soil columns with Tamarix chinensis under different groundwater salinity. A, Schematic of soil column. B, Photo of experiment with soil columns. 1, Tamarix chinensis; 2, soil; 3, groundwater; 4, flooding depth at 550 mm; 5, groundwater level at 1200 mm; 6, interstice layer of 30 mm."

Table 1

Characteristics of soil water and salt parameters under different groundwater salinity (mean ± SE, n = 3)"

地下水矿化度 Groundwater salinity 淡水 Fresh water 微咸水 Brackish water 咸水 Saline water 盐水 Salt water
土壤含盐量 Soil salt content (%) 0.11 ± 0.07a 0.49 ± 0.14b 1.05 ± 0.17c 1.17 ± 0.13d
土壤含水量 Soil water content (%) 17.31 ± 5.46a 18.33 ± 4.73a 19.53 ± 5.40a 17.47 ± 6.22a
土壤溶液绝对浓度 Absolute concentration in soil solution (%) 0.64 ± 0.01a 2.67 ± 0.03b 5.38 ± 0.03c 6.70 ± 0.02d

Fig. 2

Light response curves of net photosynthetic rate in leaves of Tamarix chinensis under different groundwater salinities (mean ± SE, n = 3)."

Table 2

Light response parameters of photosynthesis of Tamarix chinensis (mean ± SE, n = 3)"

Groundwater salinity
Apparent quantum yield (mol∙mol-1)
Maximum net photosynthetic
rate (μmol∙m-2∙s-1)
Dark respiration rate (mmol∙m-2∙s-1)
Light compensation point (µmol∙m-2∙s-1)
Light saturation point (µmol∙m-2∙s-1)
淡水 Fresh water 0.042 ± 0.001 9c 25.58 ± 1.15c 0.19 ± 0.02d 20.14 ± 0.99d 1181 ± 57c
微咸水 Brackish water 0.085 ± 0.004 0b 38.33 ± 1.72b 0.96 ± 0.05c 31.32 ± 1.53c 1441 ± 69a
咸水 Saline water 0.104 ± 0.005 5a 45.96 ± 2.07a 2.37 ± 0.11a 53.19 ± 2.60b 1258 ± 60b
盐水 Salt water 0.036 ± 0.001 9d 18.06 ± 0.82d 1.54 ± 0.07b 63.35 ± 3.10a 1241 ± 59b

Fig. 3

Light response curves of transpiration rate in leaves of Tamarix chinensis under different groundwater salinities (mean ± SE, n = 3)."

Fig. 4

Light response curves of water use efficiency in leaves of Tamarix chinensis under different groundwater salinities (mean ± SE, n = 3)."

Fig. 5

Light response curves of stomatal conductance (A), intercellular CO2 concentration (B), stomatal limitation (C) in leaves of Tamarix chinensis under different groundwater salinities (mean ± SE, n = 3)."

Fig. 6

The mean daily change of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) (A), transpiration rate (B) and stem sap flow rate (C) in Tamarix chinensis under different groundwater salinities during study period on 3 to 5, July (mean ± SE, n = 3)."

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