Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 442-452.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0171

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Long-term (1992-2015) dynamics of community composition and structure in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve

Shun ZOU1,2,Guo-Yi ZHOU1,Qian-Mei ZHANG1*(),Shan XU1,Xin XIONG1,2,Yan-Ju XIA1,2,Shi-Zhong LIU1,Ze MENG1,Guo-Wei CHU1   

  1. 1 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2018-03-08 Published:2018-04-20

Abstract:

Aims The monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) is the dominant vegetation type in the subtropics of Eurasian continent. It provides vital ecosystem services and supports the socioeconomic development of the societies. Recent literature indicated that the MEBF had been greatly affected by the changing climate and other disturbances such as outbreaks of insects and, consequently, shifted its species composition and structure. In this study, we aim at the long-term changes of plant species and community structure in the MEBF.

Methods Species names, diameters at breast height (DBH), and tree heights of all trees with DBH ≥ 1.0 cm were recorded in 1992, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2008, 2010 and 2015 in a 1-hm 2 monitoring plot in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. We quantified the long-term changes over this 24-year study period by species composition, biological diversity, aboveground biomass, DBH frequency table, and stand density by species.

Important findings Important findings From 1992 to 2015, the stand density increased by 42.7% while the total biomass decreased by 5.1%. The β diversity based on biomass and stand density indicated that the diversity increased by 37.4% and 65.6%, respectively, from 1992 to 2015. More importantly, the number of small arbor and shrubs, and smaller trees (DBH < 15 cm) also increased sharply, with major contributions from Aidia canthioides, Macaranga sampsonii and Blastus cochinchinensis. In contrast, the change in stand biomass was more from biomass decrease of Castanopsis chinensis, Schima superba and Cryptocarya concinna, but increase of Gironniera subaequalis and Pterospermum lanceifolium. We conclude that the changes on community composition and structure in the MEBF were significant, which was resulted from a combined influence of succession, changes in climate, and insect outbreaks.

Key words: stand density, biomass, diversity, long term, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest

Table 1

Main species (IV ≥ 1.0) in the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest"

序号
Order
物种
Species
生活型
Life form
物种代码
Species code
序号
Order
物种
Species
生活型
Life form
物种代码
Species code
1 Castanopsis chinensis I Cch 16 笔罗子 Meliosma rigida I Mr
2 白颜树 Gironniera subaequalis I Gs 17 广东金叶子 Craibiodendron scleranthum I Cs
3 肖蒲桃 Syzygium acuminatissimum I Sa 18 香楠 Aidia canthioides II Ac
4 木荷 Schima superba I Ss 19 鼎湖血桐 Macaranga sampsonii II Ms
5 窄叶半枫荷 Pterospermum lanceifolium I Pl 20 柏拉木 Blastus cochinchinensis II Bc
6 厚壳桂 Cryptocarya chinensis I Crc 21 云南银柴 Aporosa yunnanensis II Ay
7 橄榄 Canarium album I Ca 22 褐叶柄果木 Mischocarpus pentapetalus II Mip
8 白楸 Mallotus paniculatus I Map 23 红枝蒲桃 Syzygium rehderianum II Sr
9 黄果厚壳桂 Cryptocarya concinna I Cco 24 光叶红豆 Ormosia glaberrima II Og
10 臀果木 Pygeum topengii I Pt 25 黄叶树 Xanthophyllum hainanense II Xh
11 肉实树 Sarcosperma laurinum I Sl 26 罗伞树 Ardisia quinquegona II Aq
12 观光木 Michelia odora I Mo 27 黄毛榕 Ficus esquiroliana II Fe
13 华润楠 Machilus chinensis I Mc 28 鼎湖钓樟 Lindera chunii II Lc
14 鹅掌柴 Schefflera heptaphylla I Sh 29 九节 Psychotria asiatica II Pa
15 黄杞 Engelhardia roxburghiana I Er

Fig. 1

Changes in stand density (A) and biomass (B) of community (All), middle and big arbor (Life form I) and small arbor and shrub (Life form II) in the 1 hm2 monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest sample plot between 1992 and 2015 (linear fitting)."

Table 2

Changes of species richness and Shannon-Wiener indices based on the individual and biomass from 1992 to 2015 in the 1 hm2 monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest sample plot. All trees with diameters at breast height ≥ 1.0 cm were monitored during the study period"


Year
物种数
Species richness
基于个体数 Individual based 基于生物量 Biomass based
群落
Population
生活型I
Life form I
生活型II
Life form II
群落
Population
生活型I
Life form I
生活型II
Life form II
1992 86 2.90 2.39 2.30 2.16 1.86 2.17
1994 86 2.90 2.40 2.29 2.19 1.88 2.20
1999 90 2.99 2.52 2.39 2.27 1.97 2.21
2004 94 3.07 2.63 2.53 2.16 1.82 2.29
2008 90 2.98 2.62 2.42 2.22 1.88 2.50
2010 90 2.91 2.64 2.34 2.30 1.93 2.49
2015 80 2.71 2.62 2.15 2.38 2.01 2.41
p >0.05 >0.05 <0.05 >0.05 =0.05 >0.05 <0.05

Fig. 2

Changes in species-abundance and species-biomass relationships in the 1 hm2 monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest sample plot. A, species-abundance distribution. B, accumulative species-abundance. C, species-biomass distribution. D, species-biomass accumulation."

Fig. 3

Changes in the replacement index (RI), difference index (DI) and β diversity index (BI) with year from 1992 to 2015. A, Abundance-based logistic fitting. B, Biomass-based linear fitting."

Fig. 4

Dynamics of size class(diameters at breast height) distributions of individuals (A) and biomass (B) from 1992 to 2015 (linear fitting) in the 1 hm2 monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest sample plot. D, diameters at breast height; ↑, significant (p < 0.05) increase; ↓, significant (p < 0.05) decrease."

Fig. 5

The changes in the abundance (A) and biomass (B) of 29 common species in the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) sample plot during 1992-2015 in the 1 hm2 MEBF sample plot. Dashed lines in plot A and B represent 1.0% of the total individuals (36.4) and biomass (2.93 t) in 1992, respectively. The one-to-one relationship between codes and species is provided in Table 1."

Fig. 6

Population sizes of Castanopsis chinensis (A) and Schima superba (B) between 1992 and 2015 in the 1 hm2 monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest sample plot. Total, total number of individuals."

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