植物生态学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 283-299.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0028

所属专题: 红树林专题 入侵生态学专辑

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红树林生物入侵研究概况与趋势

陈权, 马克明*()   

  1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-27 接受日期:2015-01-28 出版日期:2015-03-01 发布日期:2015-03-17
  • 通讯作者: 马克明
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    “十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAC07B04)

Research overview and trend on biological invasion in mangrove forests

CHEN Quan, MA Ke-Ming*()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Urban & Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2014-11-27 Accepted:2015-01-28 Online:2015-03-01 Published:2015-03-17
  • Contact: Ke-Ming MA
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

为了掌握目前红树林生物入侵研究实况, 基于ISI Web of Science数据库和HistCite文献分析软件, 我们进行了全面系统的文献检索与分析。结果显示, 国内外有关红树林生物入侵研究文献绝大部分针对植物入侵, 有关动物与微生物的研究寥寥无几; 研究区域集中于中国华南与东南沿海(尤其是珠江口、雷州半岛西侧)和美国东南海岸及夏威夷群岛。无瓣海桑(Sonneratia apetala)是否构成入侵, 一直备受争议, 有待更长远论证, 但须谨慎引种。互花米草(Spartina alterniflora)与微甘菊(Mikania micrantha)是世界性恶草, 生长迅速, 繁殖力强, 竞争与化感作用明显, 二者已在红树林生态系统中爆发入侵, 显著降低了红树林微生境质量, 并改变了底栖生物群落结构。Rhizophora mangle作为外来红树植物入侵夏威夷群岛, 改善了沉积条件, 丰富了底栖生物群落, 但需从全球尺度考察入侵后果。目前, 红树林生物入侵研究才刚起步, 针对性研究局限于入侵对红树林生态系统结构和功能产生的效应。相关入侵机制缺乏探索, 现有防治方法大多只是借鉴其他被入侵系统的防治方法。今后, 红树林生物入侵研究应持续加深入侵现状和入侵效应的探索与评价, 加快开展入侵机制和防治方法的研究应用, 以及对生态系统服务的影响评价。健全红树林生物入侵管理体系, 将在防治红树林生物入侵实践中发挥主导作用。

关键词: 生物入侵, 防治方法, 入侵效应, 红树林, 研究趋势

Abstract:

To examine our current understanding on biological invasions in mangrove forests, relevant information from literature was reviewed and several key points were summarized based on the database of ISI Web of Science and the information analysis software HistCite. First, most of the studies have focused on the invasion of plant species in mangrove forests, and little attention are paid to other organisms. Secondly, there is an obvious bias on the locations of study sites, with most being situated in the southern and southeastern coasts of China (especially in the Pearl River Estuary and west of the Leizhou Peninsula) and the southeastern coast and Hawaiian Islands of the United States. Thirdly, that whether Sonneratia apetala can result in invasion is still a hot but controversial topic. Introduction of this species should be cautious. Forth, Spartina alterniflora and Mikania micrantha are the most notorious invaders around the world; both possess fast growth rate, high reproductive and competitive capacity, and strong allelopathic effects. They have invaded mangrove forests and caused severe ecological consequences, and apparently deteriorated the microhabitat and changed the benthic organisms’ community. Fifth, Rhizophora mangle has invaded Hawaiian Islands as an exotic mangrove species, modified the sedimentary environment, and enriched the benthic organisms, but the impacts are yet to be considered at the global scale. In general, studies on biological invasions in mangrove forests are still at the infant stage and we know little about the underlying mechanisms of the invasions. Specific strategies are lacking for controlling the invasion. The state of invasion and corresponding impacts should be continually focused in future studies. Exploration of the mechanisms and controlling strategies of invasion in mangroves should be launched as soon as possible. The assessment of the effects of biological invasion on ecological services of mangroves should also be emphasized. Finally, a sound management system for the control of biological invasions in mangrove forests is urgently needed.

Key words: biological invasion, control methods, invasive impacts, mangrove forest, research perspective