植物生态学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 412-426.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2003.0060

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

物种多度格局研究进展

马克明   

  • 出版日期:2003-03-10 发布日期:2003-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 马克明

Advances of the Study on Species Abundance Pattern

MA Ke-Ming   

  • Online:2003-03-10 Published:2003-03-10
  • Contact: MA Ke-Ming

摘要:

物种多度格局研究始于20世纪30年代,是种群生态学和群落生态学研究的起点。物种多度格局研究主要在两个水平上进行:1)初期研究主要集中于群落水平,希望在不同群落之间发现一个共同的整体格局来描述群落的组织结构。常用模型包括几何级数、对数级数、对数正态和断棍模型,不同模型代表了不同的生态学过程。2)目前转向重视物种水平,并以物种多度的区域分布规律及其生态学机制研究为主。物种分布区多度关系有正相关、无相关和负相关3种形式。局部多度高的物种一般趋于广布,而局部多度低的物种趋于受限分布。物种多度区域分布的生态位模型预测为单峰型,还经常会出现“热点地区”;而异质种群模型预测为双峰型。物种多度的区域分布主要由环境资源特性、物种生态位和扩散过程等因素决定。3)物种多度格局的时间变化与空间变异类似,代表了这些生态学过程的时间异质性。4)物种多度格局的尺度变化经常表现出自相似性,但该规律并非一直存在,因为生物多样性由不同尺度上的不同生态学过程决定。5)多度(稀有度)是物种保护的基本依据,而群落多度模型能够指示生态学和干扰过程变化对群落结构的影响。物种多度格局的模型手段仍需改进,机制研究尚不系统,应用研究亟待扩展,对于物种多度格局的深入理解将为揭示生物多样性分布机制和有效保护提供帮助。

Abstract:
The study on species abundance pattern started in 1930’s, which is the origination of population and community ecologies. The species abundance pattern analysis can be conducted at two levels. 1) At the beginning stage, it was focused on the community level, which seeked to provide a common global pattern among different communities. The often-used methods include geometric series, log-series, log-normal and broken stick models, and each model represents different ecological process. 2) Nowadays, it highlights the species level, which focused on regional distribution of species and its ecological mechanisms. There are three kinds of species distribution-abundance relationships, that is positive, negative and no correlation. Species tend to be widely spread in region with high local abundance whilst restrictedly distributed with low local abundance. The regional distribution of species abundance is unimodal by niche model prediction, and some “hot spots" are often emerged. It is bimodal by meta-population model prediction, which may be determined by the properties of environmental resources, species niches and dispersal processes. 3) The dynamics of species abundance pattern is similar to its spatial variation in that it represents the temporal heterogeneity of those underlying ecological processes. 4) The scale variation of species abundance pattern is often self-similar though it does not always exist, because biodiversity is normally determined by different processes at different scales, and they are not necessarily self-similar all the time. 5) Abundance (rarity) is the basis for species preservation, while species abundance models could provide indication to the variation of ecological or perturbation processes on community structure. The research of species abundance pattern is still insufficient in mechanism explanation,modeling techniques, and conservation applications, and the development of relevant researches would advance the understanding of distribution mechanisms and the effective preservation of biological diversity in the future.