植物生态学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 298-310.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00027

• • 上一篇    

根系分泌物介导下植物-土壤-微生物互作关系研究进展与展望

吴林坤1,2,*(), 林向民1,2,*, 林文雄1,2,**   

  1. 1福建农林大学生命科学学院, 福州 350002
    2福建农林大学生物农药与化学生物学教育部重点实验室, 福州 350002
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-09 接受日期:2014-01-12 出版日期:2013-10-09 发布日期:2014-02-27
  • 通讯作者: 吴林坤,林向民,林文雄
  • 作者简介:**E-mail: wenxiong181@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(2012CB126309);国家自然科学基金(U1205021);福建农林大学优秀博士学位论文资助基金(324-1122yb005)

Advances and perspective in research on plant-soil-microbe interactions mediated by root exudates

WU Lin-Kun1,2,*(), LIN Xiang-Min1,2,*, LIN Wen-Xiong1,2,**   

  1. 1College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
  • Received:2013-10-09 Accepted:2014-01-12 Online:2013-10-09 Published:2014-02-27
  • Contact: WU Lin-Kun,LIN Xiang-Min,LIN Wen-Xiong

摘要:

根系分泌物是植物与土壤进行物质交换和信息传递的重要载体物质, 是植物响应外界胁迫的重要途径, 是构成植物不同根际微生态特征的关键因素, 也是根际对话的主要调控者。根系分泌物对于生物地球化学循环、根际生态过程调控、植物生长发育等均具有重要功能, 尤其是在调控根际微生态系统结构与功能方面发挥着重要作用, 调节着植物-植物、植物-微生物、微生物-微生物间复杂的互作过程。植物化感作用、作物间套作、生物修复、生物入侵等都是现代农业生态学的研究热点, 它们都涉及十分复杂的根际生物学过程。越来越多的研究表明, 不论是同种植物还是不同种植物之间相互作用的正效应或是负效应, 都是由根系分泌物介导下的植物与特异微生物共同作用的结果。近年来, 随着现代生物技术的不断完善, 有关土壤这一“黑箱”的研究方法与技术取得了长足的进步, 尤其是各种宏组学技术(meta-omics technology), 如环境宏基因组学、宏转录组学、宏蛋白组学、宏代谢组学等的问世, 极大地推进了人们对土壤生物世界的认知, 尤其是对植物地下部生物多样性和功能多样性的深层次剖析, 根际生物学特性的研究成果被广泛运用于指导生产实践。深入系统地研究根系分泌物介导下的植物-土壤-微生物的相互作用方式与机理, 对揭示土壤微生态系统功能、定向调控植物根际生物学过程、促进农业生产可持续发展等具有重要的指导意义。该文综述了根系分泌物的概念、组成及功能, 论述了根系分泌物介导下植物与细菌、真菌、土壤动物群之间的密切关系, 总结了探索根际生物学特性的各种研究技术及其优缺点, 并对该领域未来的研究方向进行了展望。

关键词: 生态效应, 微生态系统, 根际, 根系分泌物, 信号分子

Abstract:

Root exudates have specialized roles in nutrient cycling and signal transduction between a root system and soil, as well as in plant response to environmental stresses. They are the key regulators in rhizosphere communication, and can modify the biological and physical interactions between roots and soil organisms. Root exudates play important roles in biogeochemical cycle, regulation of rhizospheric ecological processes, and plant growth and development, and so on. Root exudates also serve roles in the plant-plant, plant-microbe, and microbe-microbe interactions. Plant allelopathy, intercropping system, bioremediation, and biological invasion are all the focal subjects in the field of contemporary agricultural ecology. They all involve the complex biological processes in rhizosphere. There are increasing evidences that various positive and negative plant-plant interactions within or among plant populations, such as allelopathy, consecutive monoculture problem, and interspecific facilitation in intercropping system, are all the results of the integrative effect of plant-microbe interactions mediated by root exudates. Recently, with the development of biotechnology, the methods and technologies relating to soil ecological research have achieved a remarkable progress. In particular, the breakthroughs of meta-omics technologies, including environmental metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabonomics, have largely enriched our knowledge of the soil biological world and the biodiversity and function diversity belowground. Research on plant-soil-microbe interactions mediated by root exudates has important implications for elucidating the functions of rhizosphere microecology and for providing practical guidelines. The concept and components of root exudates as well as the functions are reviewed in this paper. An overview on the root-bacteria, root-fungi, and root-fauna interactions is presented in detail. Methods to study root exudates and microbial communities are reviewed and the aspects needed to be further studied are also suggested.

Key words: ecological effect, microecology, rhizosphere, root exudate, signal molecule