植物生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (2): 186-194.DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.02.010

所属专题: 红树林

• 2008年冰灾对森林生态系统的破坏专题论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

2008年南方低温对我国红树植物的破坏作用

陈鹭真1, 王文卿1, 张宜辉1, 黄丽1, 赵春磊1, 杨盛昌1, 杨志伟1, 陈粤超2, 徐华林3, 钟才荣4, 苏博5, 方柏州6, 陈乃明7, 曾传志8, 林光辉1,*()   

  1. 1滨海湿地生态系统教育部重点实验室, 厦门大学生命科学学院, 福建厦门 361005
    2广东湛江红树林国家级自然保护区管理局, 广东湛江 524088
    3广东内伶仃-福田国家级自然保护区管理局, 广东深圳 518040
    4海南东寨港国家级自然保护区管理局, 海南海口 571129
    5广西北仑河口国家级自然保护区管理局, 广西防城港 538021
    6福建漳江口国家级红树林湿地自然保护区管理局, 福建云霄 363300
    7广西钦州市林业科学研究所, 广西钦州 535000
    8海南清澜港自然保护区管理站, 海南文昌 571300
  • 收稿日期:2009-04-26 接受日期:2009-09-12 出版日期:2010-04-26 发布日期:2010-02-01
  • 通讯作者: 林光辉
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: lingh@xmu.edu.cn

Damage to mangroves from extreme cold in early 2008 in southern China

CHEN Lu-Zhen1, WANG Wen-Qing1, ZHANG Yi-Hui1, HUANG Li1, ZHAO Chun-Lei1, YANG Sheng-Chang1, YANG Zhi-Wei1, CHEN Yue-Chao2, XU Hua-Lin3, ZHONG Cai-Rong4, SU Bo5, FANG Bai-Zhou6, CHEN Nai-Ming7, ZENG Chuan-Zhi8, LIN Guang-Hui1,*()   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China
    2The Administrative Bureau of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524088, China
    3The Administrative Bureau of Neilingding-Futian National Nature Reserve, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518040, China
    4The Administrative Bureau of Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve, Haikou, Hainan 571129, China
    5The Administrative Bureau of Beilunhe Estuary National Nature Reserve, Fangchenggang, Guangxi 538021, China
    6The Administrative Bureau of Zhangjiang Estuary National Nature Reserve, Yunxiao, Fujian 363300, China
    7Qinzhou Institute of Forestry, Qinzhou, Guangxi 535000, China
    8The Administrative Bureau of Qinglan Harbor Nature Reserve, Wenchang, Hainan 571300, China
  • Received:2009-04-26 Accepted:2009-09-12 Online:2010-04-26 Published:2010-02-01
  • Contact: LIN Guang-Hui

摘要:

2008年初, 我国南方19个省经历了50年一遇的持续低温雨雪冰冻天气。极端气候对华南沿海各省的红树林区造成不同程度的危害。2008年3月, 在我国南方各省红树林区的10个代表性地点, 对这次寒害造成的红树植物伤害程度进行了系统的调查。结果表明: 冬季低温对红树林的影响极为显著, 特别是在低纬度的海南、广西和广东湛江, 由于极端低温正值夜间退潮, 对红树林的影响更为显著; 在纬度较高的福建, 本地红树种类秋茄(Kandelia obovata)、桐花树(Aegiceras corniculatum)和白骨壤(Avicennia marina)及引种的木榄(Bruguiera gymnorrhiza)等, 由于长期适应于冬季较低的气温或在种植前经过抗寒锻炼, 具有较强的抗寒能力。各地主要红树植物中, 广布种秋茄、桐花树和白骨壤最为耐寒, 其耐寒性均大于红树科的木榄、海莲(Bruguiera sexangula)和红海榄(Rhizophora stylosa)。海桑(Sonneratia caseolaris)对温度的敏感性最强, 抗寒能力最低, 因此, 即使在其原产地海南也受到较为严重的寒害, 在纬度更高的引种地出现大面积受害甚至全部死亡, 而从孟加拉国引种的无瓣海桑(Sonneratia apetala)却显示出一定的抗寒能力。同一地点的红树植物幼苗的抗寒能力低于大树。此次寒害也造成了苗圃场的种苗大量死亡, 成熟的植株提前落花落果, 这势必会影响后继一两年内红树林的自然更新和人工造林。因此, 在未来红树林造林或人工引种中, 一定要考虑到红树植物的抗寒能力。

关键词: 寒害, 气候变化, 抗寒, 极端气温, 红树植物

Abstract:

Aims Unusually low temperatures associated with heavy rain, snow and frost occurred in 19 provinces in southern China in January-February 2008. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of the cold weather event on mangroves and to compare differences in cold tolerance between exotic and native mangrove species.

Methods In March 2008, we conducted an intensive survey of cold damage in ten mangrove nature reserves along the coastal areas of mainland China. Parameters such as scorch percentage, defoliation percentage and leaf Fv/Fm values (an indicator of leaf physiological health) were determined on selected seedlings and trees of the mangrove species at each site.

Important findings With low latitudes in Hainan, Guangxi and Zhanjiang of Guangdong, low air temperature coupled with the ebb tide at night, which caused serious damage to several mangrove species. However, native mangrove species in Fujian, such as Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina and transplanted Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, which were adapted to low temperature events in winters, had higher cold resistance. Among all mangrove species surveyed, K. obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina were the most cold-resistant, followed by B. gymnorrhiza, B. sexangula and Rhizophora stylosa, which belong to the family Rhizophoraceae. Sonneratia caseolaris was the least cold-resistent mangrove species, having suffered serious damage or even complete loss in some locations. S. apetala introduced from Bangladesh showed much less damage than its counterpart S. caseolaris, indicating higher resistance to low temperature. Furthermore, mangrove seedlings were more sensitive than mature trees. The extreme cold event killed many mangrove seedlings in the nurseries and caused immature flowers and fruits to drop from trees, which would have an adverse effect on mangrove natural reproduction and reforestation projects. Thus, it is essential to consider cold resistance in future mangrove afforestration and restoration projects.

Key words: chilling, climate change, cold resistance, extreme temperature, mangroves